Revising a Literature Review

Report
SURVEYING THE
LANDSCAPE
How to Revise a Literature Review
W H AT A L I T R E V I E W I S N OT
WHAT A LIT REVIEW IS
•
Broad survey of sources on a
particular topic
•
Synthesis of those sources in terms
of relationship to topic
•
Analysis of those sources by points
of comparison/contrast &
evaluation
•
Presentation of Sources in order to
demonstrate which aspects require
further research
WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE?
Researchers have conducted studies about siblings of special needs and autistic children because this
group is vulnerable to adjustment difficulties (Cuskelly, 1999). In fact, specialists have compared the siblingautism relationship to the MR relationship. They have also studied the importance of the family, and particularly
the mother, in this relationship. In addition, Kaminsky and Dewey (2001) found that the autism-sibling
relationship is characterized by less intimacy and pro-social behavior. This study likewise reports that these
relationships were marked by fewer instances of quarreling. While this phenomenon may occur because of the
unique situation of the autism-sibling relationship, less fighting is also a positive illustration of a relationship
marked by more admiration. Furthermore, Rivers and Stoneman (2003) define this relationship as asymmetrical.
These results are also similar to the MR-sibling relationship, as reported by Knott, et al. (1995). Rivers and
Stoneman (2003) reveal, too, that parents worry about the autism-sibling relationship in their families. The
importance of the family’s influence on the autism-sibling relationship is very useful for this research
study and thus, will be discussed in the conclusion of the literature review.
~Ellen Geib, CU Writing
Center Tutor
HOW DID ELLEN DO THAT?
 Organize your sources by sub-topics: One sub-topic/paragraph
 In the first sentence of each paragraph, transition from the previous
paragraph; then compose topic sentence for the paragraph
 Sum up each source in terms of what research shows
 Discuss both the similarities and the differences between those
sources
 At the end of each paragraph, make a synthesis statement
TYPICAL NEEDS FOR
REVISION
Or: What do I do now that I have my first rough draft?
IMPROVE YOUR THESIS
 Argue for a particular evaluation of the research or perspective on
the research in one sentence near the end of the introduction
 Examples:
• The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines
surgery and medicine.
• More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media
as a subject worthy of academic consideration.
• Source of examples:
http://writingcenter.unc.edu/resources/handoutsdemos/specific-writing-assignments/literature-reviews
LOGICAL STRUCTURE
 Break the “string of pearls”: This is not an annotated bib.
 Follow Your Thesis
 Revise material so it fits a logical structure (3 basic choices):
• Chronology (of publication or of trend)
• Methodology
• Thematic
 Develop logical structure from rough draft:
• “Post-outline” to discover organizational problems. Go.
• “Shadow Draft” to discover what the sub-topics are: Go.
REVISING RESEARCH
Eliminate Irrelevant Sources
Add Relevant Sources
 Sources that don’t relate to one
 Do more research to find
another in terms of theme/topic,
sources you can compare &
methodology, etc.
 Sources that aren’t peerreviewed
 Sources that may be too
obscure
contrast
 Do more research to find
sources that are significant and
peer-reviewed
FLUENT WRITING
 Every paragraph should flow
from & connect back to the thesis
 Each paragraph should flow
from & develop its topic sentence
 Use transitions!
THESIS & T.S. CHECKS
Circle Thesis
Circle Every Topic Sentence
 Look at each paragraph, and
 Look at each paragraph and
answer:
answer:
• How does this paragraph
develop my thesis?
• How can I revise this
paragraph so that it does
develop my thesis?
• Do I need to eliminate this
paragraph?
• How does this paragraph
develop my topic sentence?
• How can I revise this
paragraph so that it does
develop my topic sentence?
• Do I need to rewrite my
topic sentence?
TRANSITIONS . . .
 To Show Addition: and, also, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, next, too, first,
second
 To Give Examples: for example, for instance, to illustrate, in fact, specifically
 To Compare: also, similarly, likewise
 To Contrast: but, however, on the other hand, in contrast, nevertheless, still, even though, on the
contrary, yet, although
 To Show Time (Chronology): after, as, before, next, during, later, finally, meanwhile, since,
then, when, while, immediately
 To Indicate Logical Relationship: if, so, therefore, consequently, thus, as a result, for this
reason, because, since
Source: Diana Hacker & Nancy Sommers, A Writer’s Reference, 7th ed.
PARAPHRASES
 Paraphrase carefully
• Avoid plagiarism!
• Must translate original source into your own words & sentence syntax
• Use appropriate documentation style per assignment (APA, MLA,
Turabian, etc.)
 Paraphrase accurately
• Double check with original source
• Fix whatever you’ve misrepresented or taken out of context
 Paraphrase far more than you quote (quote only once or twice)
BEGIN & END WELL
 Introduction
• Set up & explain literature
review structure
• (Thematic?
Chronological?
Methodology?)
• Present thesis
 Conclusion
• Specifically identify the
study that will follow (i.e.,
your original study!) as a
result of this literature
review.
• Specifically identify the
study that should follow (i.e.,
the original study that some
researcher should do) as a
result of this literature
review.
WRITING CENTER
 Afternoons: MWF 1:00-5:00 & T/R 12:30-5:00 p.m.
 Evenings: Sundays, 7-9 p.m. & M-R 7:00-11:00 p.m.
 One hour (extended consultations) for 3000- & 4000-level courses
with required papers of 8+ pages in length (once/week)
 Online appointment schedule:
http://www.cedarville.edu/Offices/Writing-Center/Edit-an-
Appointment.aspx

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