Green Building

 Refers to a structure and using process that is
environmentally responsible and resource efficient
throughout a building’s life cycle : from sitting to
design, construction, operation, maintenance,
renovation, and demolition.
 Green building – also known as sustainable or high
performance building increases the efficiency with
which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy,
water, and materials.
 The ‘GREEN BUILDING’ concept is gaining
importance in various countries, including India.
These are buildings that ensure waste is minimized
at every stage during the construction and
operation of the building, resulting in low costs,
according to experts in technology.
 A Green building is a structure that is environmentally
responsible and resource efficient throughout it’s life
Green building are designed to reduce the overall
impact of the built environment on human health and
the natural environment by :
 Efficiently using energy, water and other resources.
 Protecting occupant health and improving employee
 Reducing waste, pollution and environment
Goals of green building
 Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques
to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the
environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage
of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active
solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees
through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater runoff. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable
concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance
replenishment of ground water, are used as well.
 Fundamental principles : Structure Design Efficiency, Energy
Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor
Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance
Optimization, and Waste and Toxics Reduction
Structure design efficiency
 The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and
design stages. The concept stage, in fact, is one of the major steps in a
project life cycle, as it has the largest impact on cost and performance.
In designing environmentally optimal buildings, the objective is
to minimize the total environmental impact associated with all
life-cycle stages of the building project. However, building as a
process is not as streamlined as an industrial process, and varies from
one building to the other, never repeating itself identically. In addition,
buildings are much more complex products, composed of a multitude
of materials and components each constituting various design variables
to be decided at the design stage. A variation of every design
variable may affect the environment during all the building's
relevant life-cycle stages.
Energy efficiency
 To reduce operating energy use, high-efficiency windows and
insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors increase the efficiency of
the building envelope, (the barrier between conditioned and
unconditioned space). Another strategy, passive solar building
design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient
windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees to shade
windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in
the winter. In addition, effective window placement (day lighting) can
provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting
during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy costs.
 Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind
power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the
environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally
the most expensive feature to add to a building.
Water efficiency
 Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key
objectives in sustainable building. One critical issue of water
consumption is that in many areas, the demands on the supplying
aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself. To the maximum extent
feasible, facilities should increase their dependence on water
that is collected, used, purified, and reused on-site. The
protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building
may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles
water in toilet flushing. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing
water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and lowflow shower heads. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper,
reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water onsite. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water
quality and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in
circulation. The use of non-sewage and greywater for on-site use
such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local
Materials efficiency
 Green building materials are composed of renewable, rather than
nonrenewable resources. Green materials are environmentally
responsible because impacts are considered over the life of the product.
Depending upon project-specific goals, an assessment of green
materials may involve an evaluation of one or more of the criteria listed
 Green building material/product selection criteria :
Resource efficiency
Indoor air quality
Energy efficiency
Water conservation
Resource Efficiency
 Recycled Content: Products with identifiable recycled content,
including postindustrial content with a preference for post consumer
 Resource efficient manufacturing process: Products manufactured
with resource-efficient processes including reducing energy
consumption, minimizing waste (recycled, recyclable and or source
reduced product packaging), and reducing greenhouse gases.
 Locally available: Building materials, components, and systems found
locally or regionally saving energy and resources in transportation to
the project site.
 Durable: Materials that are longer lasting or are comparable to
conventional products with long life expectancies.
Indoor environmental quality enhancement
 Indoor Air Quality seeks to reduce volatile organic compounds, or
VOCs, and other air impurities such as microbial contaminants.
Buildings rely on a properly designed ventilation system
(passively/naturally- or mechanically-powered) to provide adequate
ventilation of cleaner air from outdoors or recirculated, filtered air as
well as isolated operations (kitchens, dry cleaners, etc.) from other
 Low or non-toxic: Materials that emit few or no carcinogens,
reproductive toxicants, or irritants as demonstrated by the
manufacturer through appropriate testing.
 Moisture resistant: Products and systems that resist moisture or
inhibit the growth of biological contaminants in buildings.
 Systems or equipment: Products that promote healthy IAQ by
identifying indoor air pollutants or enhancing the air quality.
Operations and maintenance optimization
 No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and
construction, it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and
maintained properly.. Every aspect of green building is integrated into
the O&M phase of a Ensuring operations and maintenance(O&M)
personnel are part of the project's planning and development
process will help retain the green criteria designed at the onset of
the project building's life. The addition of new green technologies also
falls on the O&M staff. Although the goal of waste reduction may be
applied during the design, construction and demolition phases of a
building's life-cycle, it is in the O&M phase that green practices
such as recycling and air quality enhancement take place
Waste reduction
 Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and
materials used during construction. For example, in California nearly 60%
of the state's waste comes from commercial buildings .During the
construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material
going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of
waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions
such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.
 To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options
exist. "Greywater", wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or
washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for
non-potable purposes, e.g., to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater
collectors are used for similar purposes.
 Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of
energy. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater
into fertilizer, which avoids these costs and shows other benefits.
Cost and payoff
 The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly
buildings is the price. Photo-voltaics, new appliances, and modern
technologies tend to cost more money. Most green buildings cost a
premium of <2%, but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the
building. The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front cost vs. lifecycle cost. The savings in money come from more efficient use of
utilities which result in decreased energy bills. It is projected that
different sectors could save $130 Billion on energy bills. Also,
higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and
cost deductions.
 Studies have shown over a 20 year life period, some green buildings
have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on
investment. Confirming the rentability of green building investments,
further studies of the commercial real estate market have found that
LEED and Energy Star certified buildings achieve significantly
higher rents, sale prices and occupancy rates as well as lower
capitalization rates potentially reflecting lower investment risk.
Regulation and operation
 The Indian building industry is highly de-centralized with
people and/ or groups engaged in design, construction,
equipment provision, installation, and renovation working
together. Each group may be organized to some extent, but there
is limited interaction among the groups, thus disabling the
integrated green design and application process.
Hence, it is very important to define and quantify sustainable
building practices and their benefits. It is also important to
separate the role of different participants in ensuring that the
building consumes minimal resources over its entire life cycle
and leaves behind a minimal environmental footprint.
Indian Green Building Council
 The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), was formed in the year 2001
by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The vision of the council is to
usher in a green building movement in India and facilitate India to become
one of the global leaders in green buildings by 2015.
With a modest beginning of 20,000 sq ft (1,900 m2). green built-up area in
the country in the year 2003, today more than 1053 green buildings ( as on
April 2011) with a built-up area of over 648,000,000 sq ft (60,200,000 m2).
are being constructed all over India, of which 147 green buildings are
certified and fully functional
LEED India for New Construction
LEED India for Core and Shell
IGBC Green Homes
IGBC Green Factory Building
IGBC Green Townships
Green Rating
for Integrated Habitat Assessment
 GRIHA has been developed after a thorough study and understanding
of the current internationally accepted green building rating systems
and the prevailing building practices in India. The team has researched
on several international rating systems. A few team members were also
sponsored under a study tour by USAEP (United States Asia
Environmental Partnership) to understand the eco-rating systems
prevalent in the US. The team has vast experience in providing design
assistance to green buildings in the country and long and varied
experience in carrying out energy conservation studies in existing
hotels, offices, and other commercial building. The team has effectively
utilized the several multi-disciplinary strengths and experiences of the
colleagues at TERI to arrive at the tools that addresses cross-cutting
issues in the design, development, and operation of a green building.
Suzlon Energy
Limited - Pune
Several accolades continue to
shower upon Suzlon’s global
headquarter in Pune - “One
Earth” - ever since the facility
has been LEED ‘Platinum’
rated and certified as an ecofriendly building by the Green
Building Council. Built to
perfection on an area of 41,000
square meters (10.13 acres),
One Earth can be counted as
among the largest green
building projects in India and
is living proof that our world
can be replenished with a little
green effort, everyday.
Conservation India
Ltd (BCIL) Bangalore
As a green builder who strives for
the conservation of diversity in
vegetation, forests, culture and
urban lifestyles, BCIL has created
some of the most energy-efficient
residential homes India has ever
set eyes upon. The company’s TZed
homes in Whitefield, Bangalore
has been certified as the first
residential apartment in the world
to be rated ‘Platinum’ under LEED.
TZed, which means “Towards
Zero Energy Development” is a
2,49,000 sq.ft. green project
spread across 5.5 acres and is
designed to reduce lighting and
energy by nearly 70 per cent.
No home at BCIL TZed Homes uses
incandescent lamps, halogens and
fluorescent tubelights
ITC Green Centre Gurgaon
Renowned as one of the early
adopters of the green building
movement in India, the ITC Green
Centre is still considered a
benchmark for green buildings. It
was the first 'Platinum' rated
building in India and has
endeavored to adopt green
practices that go beyond recycled
waste and day-lit offices. Within a
built-in area of 180,000 sq.ft., the
building features alternative
transportation facilities, storm
water management system,
solar thermal technology,
reflective high-albedo roof
paint, minimal exterior
lighting, separate smoking
rooms with exhaust system and
zero-water discharge
More than 10% of the building materials are
refurbished from other sites and 40% are
from within 500 miles of the project site
The Druk White
Lotus School Ladakh
In this desert landscape of severe
climatic conditions, 3,500 meters
above sea level, was born a modest
school that is adjudged as an
outstanding example of
sustainable, green, cost effective
building development. This multiaward winning structure is the
recipient of the Best Asian
Building, Best Education
Building and Best Green
Building awards. It combines
the best of traditional Ladakhi
architecture with 21st century
engineering excellence and is
built with traditional materials
such as locally excavated stone,
mud bricks, timber and grass.
Traditional mud brick masonry is used
internally to provide increased thermal
performance and durability
La Cuisine Solaire Auroville
One of the most innovative
green buildings in the country
is the solar kitchen at
Auroville that best
demonstrates the use of solar
energy to produce steam. This
1700 sq. m. kitchen is
named thus because of the
huge 15 diameter solar bowl
that has been fixed at the
top of the structure to
harvest solar energy. On a
clear day, this green
structure can generate
enough steam at a
temperature of 150°C that
can be used to cook meals
for 1000 people, three times
a day.
This building puts to use appropriate
technologoes and passive solar concepts to
achieve energy-efficiency
Doon School Dehradun
Authorities can rightfully
claim that this establishment
is one of India's first green
school campuses that opted
for recycling measures and
successfully achieved cent
per cent self-sufficiency in
energy, water and organic
fertilizer. Several old
building blocks that were
part of the 69 acre school
were redesigned and solar
thermal systems, waste
management processes as
well as biomass gasification
systems were introduced as
part of its green initiatives.
Doon school drastically reduced the need for
artificial heating/cooling air conditioning
through solar thermal systems and crossventilation
Raintree Hotels Chennai
Here is an eco-sensitive hotel for
the eco-savvy traveler. The entire
chain of Raintree business hotels
across Chennai city are the first
eco-sensitive hotels in South India.
Everything about this hospitality
range is green: right from the
rubber wood, bamboo and
medium-density fiber used for
construction down to the
Portland Pozzalana cement
containing 15 to 20 per cent fly
ash. The George Fisher
concealed cistern installed at
the hotel controls the water
used in toilet flushes and the
sewage treatment plant recycles
water for use in air conditioners.
Setting new standards of environmental
responsibility without compromising on
guest experience
Rajiv Gandhi
Airport Hyderabad
India’s first Greenfield airport is
undeniably among the top 10 green
buildings in India and the first
airport in Asia to be awarded the
LEED ‘Silver’ rating certification by
US Green Building Council.
Featuring 100,005 sq. m. of glass
encased terminal, this green
building ensures optimal use of
natural light and minimal
wastage of electricity or energy
consumption. Yet another of its
green features includes the
recycling of treated wastewater
for landscaping, air
conditioning and flushing
This greenfield airport has been built at a
cost of Rs 2,478 crore
Patni Knowledge
* Climate responsive architecture
* Over 50% green area
* 75% of the area receives natural
* 95% of the occupants get access
to outside views
* Zero discharge building; 100%
recycling of sewage
* Drip water irrigation and solar
water heating
* Interior materials with low
volatile organic compound (VOC)
* Healthy air quality with CO2
sensors for adding fresh air on
* Maximum use of eco-friendly
recyclable material.
Set up with an investment of Rs.. 175 crores,
this Green IT-BPO centre is spread over 5
acres of land and seats over 3,500 people.
Nokia - Gurgaon
Among India’s most sustainable
buildings is the corporate office of
Nokia in Gurgaon which has been
granted accreditation as one of the
world’s leading green buildings by
the U.S. Green Building Council
(USGBC). This is the first time that
a commercial interior fit-out
project in India is being awarded
the Green Building Award and
prestigious LEED ‘Gold’ rating.
What makes this green office stand
out from the rest is its smart
lighting and ventilation
systems, high-efficiency
chillers, high-performance
double glazing, heat recovery
wheel, green guard certified
furniture and online CO2
monitoring system.

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