INDIA CASE STUDIES YOUTHFUL POPULATION the median age of India's population as a whole is 28, significantly lower than that of regional peers China and Japan, at 37.6 and 44.4, respectively, according to data from global market research firm Euromonitor. India's workforce, those between 15 and 64, is expected to rise from almost 64 percent of its population in 2009 to 67 percent in 2020. India's "demographic dividend" — the window of opportunity that a large workforce creates to While the country's young demographic base strengthen an economy — could add 2 is beneficial for India's growth, harnessing its percentage points to the country's annual full potential is a major challenge, said growth rate over the next two decades, the Siddhartha Sanyal, chief India economist at International Monetary Fund said in 2011. Barclays. The male adult literacy rate stands at 75 percent, The United Nations defines youth as people while female literacy is significantly lower at 51 between ages 15 and 24. By this measure, percent, according to World Bank data. there are approximately 240 million youth in The report India commissioned to recommend India, about 20% of the population, changes to sexual assault laws after the deadly according to preliminary projections from gangrape of a 23-year-old Delhi student in the 2011 census. That’s up from 195 million December highlighted the economic frustration in 2001. of young Indian men as a serious issue. Unemployment & underemployment are The combination of young men with few notoriously difficult to measure because as much as 90% of the Indian labor force works prospects and the frustration of being single is especially pronounced in North India, where sex in the informal sector, in activities and ratios are the most skewed. occupations that by definition aren’t recorded in official statistics. ANTINATAL POLICY The overriding objective of economic and social development is to improve the quality of lives that people lead, to enhance their well-being, and to provide them with opportunities and choices to become productive assets in society. In the 1950s, existing hospitals and health care facilities made birth control information available, but there was no aggressive effort to encourage the use of contraceptives and limitation of family size. By 1991, India had more than 150,000 public health facilities through which family planning programs were offered. Four special family planning projects were implemented under the Seventh Five-Year Plan (FY 1985-89). the All-India Hospitals Post-partum Programme at district- and subdistrict-level hospitals. Another program involved the reorganization of primary health care facilities in urban slum areas, while another project reserved a specified number of hospital beds for tubal ligature operations. Studies have found that most couples in fact regard family planning positively. The common fertility pattern in India diverges from the two-child family. Women continue to marry young; in the mid-1990s, they average just over eighteen years of age at marriage. When women choose to be sterilized, financial inducements, although helpful, are not the principal incentives. On average, those accepting sterilization already have four living children, of whom two are sons. GENDER INEQUALITY UNDP report, ranks India 136th out of 186 countries UNDP study says that only 29% of Indian women above the age of 15 in 2011 were a part of the country’s labor force, compared to 80.7% men. In Parliament, only 10.9% of lawmakers are women. Only 26.6% women above 25 years received a secondary education in 2010, compared to 50.4% of men. Women in poor and less educated households often marry around the age of 16, but even women from better oﬀ and more educated households marry around age 19–20. h e average age at marriage is 19.3 years in metropolitan cities and is considerably lower in less developed villages. Some studies have documented that in villages in India, women are often discouraged to seek education. However, recent studies document remarkable success in efforts to improve girls' primary education. However, when it comes to secondary education, girls are still disadvantaged. Moreover, women's employment rates are still low and seem to have further declined in recent years . In some areas, girls have a surprisingly low enrolment rate, most notably in Bihar. At the primary level, it is 37% and it continuously drops from there (31% in middle school, 25% at the secondary level and 19% at a college level). In 1993, the Usilampatti area of the Tamil Nadu state featured the death of as many as the Keshar Nagav slum, men have preferences 196 girl under suspicious circumstances. Older data is also alarming. In 1984, all but one of in the holding of the titles for the houses. No the 8000 abortions that were performed after joint titles were issued for married couples, and overall only two women in the whole slum prenatal sex determination in Mumbai occurred to girls. owned the title of their house. GLOBAL INTERACTIONS – OUTSOURCING India’s outsourcing revenue hits $50bn Cisco Systems, announces a $1.1bn investment in Bangalore, creating 6,000 jobs. India's IT sector employs 1.3 million people directly, and 3 million indirectly - and 40% of the IT sector is concentrated in Bangalore. IT industry gained returns of US$ 71.6 billion. As of 2012, around 2.8 million people work in outsourcing sector. Annual revenues are around $11 billion, around 1% of GDP. Around 2.5 million people graduate in India every year. Wages are rising by 10-15 percent as a result of skill shortage. The industry has been growing rapidly. It grew at a rate of 38% over 2005. For the FY06 financial year the projections is of US$7.2 billion worth of services provided by this industry. The base in terms of headcount being roughly 400,000 people directly employed in this Industry. The global BPO Industry is estimated to be worth 120-150 billion dollars, of this the offshore BPO is estimated to be some US$11.4 billion. India thus has some 5-6% share of the total Industry, but a commanding 63% share of the offshore component. The U.S $7.2 billion also represents some 20% of the IT and BPO Industry which is in total expected to have revenues worth US$36 billion for 2006. The headcount at 400,000 is some 40% of the approximate one million workers estimated to be directly employed in the IT and BPO Sector. The related Industry dependent on this are Catering, BPO training and recruitment, transport vendors, (home pick up and drops for night shifts being the norm in the industry). Security agencies, Facilities management companies. The first criticism concerns the damaging psychological effects on Indian call-center employees who are expected to ape the Western employees they have replaced in terms of accents, slang and even names. It has been claimed that this influence, which far exceeds the industry's economic contribution, has allowed the industry to secure the support and resources of the Indian state ahead of other sectors of the national economy India might have the world's second highest number of Facebook users , but according to the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), Internet penetration across the entire population is still below 10 percent . Computers (PCs) penetration is under 10% (vs. +80% in North America or UK) and in rural India this is a scaring sub 1% Using an Internet Society Community Grant of US $9,000, ISOC Bangalore is training everyone from tailors and glass cutters to cotton weavers and furniture makers to download pictures, e-mail, video conference, instant message, use Excel and Word, as well as promote their products on Facebook and Twitter. IAMAI's research has found that while 20 percent of urban Indians are connected, only three percent of rural Indians are . "Power is a serious concern in remote areas, but we try to make sure that the supplying nodes are solar-enabled. Having said that even battery back-up is good enough as nobody in remote areas wants a 24/7 service," Manzar FOOD & HEALTH: HIV/AIDS India has an HIV/AIDS population of approximately 1.4-1.6 million people. Despite being home to the world's thirdlargest population suffering from HIV/AIDS (with South Africa and Nigeria having more), the AIDS prevalence rate in India is lower than in many other countries. In 2007, India's AIDS prevalence rate stood at approximately 0.30%—the 89th highest in the world. The medical journal "The Lancet" in (2006) reported an approximately 30% decline in HIV infections among young women aged 15 to 24 years attending prenatal clinics in selected southern states of India from 2000 to 2004. The authors cautiously attribute observed declines to increased condom use by men who visit commercial sex workers. Some efforts have been made to tailor educational literature to those with low literacy levels, mainly through local libraries as this is the most readily accessible locus of information for interested parties. According to the United Nations 2011 AIDS report, there has been a 50% decline in the number of new HIV infections in the last 10 years in India he US$2.5 billion National AIDS Control Plan III was set up by India in 2007 and received support from UNAIDS The main factors which have contributed to India's large HIVinfected population are extensive labor migration and low literacy levels in certain rural areas resulting in lack of awareness and gender disparity. The Government of India has also raised concerns about the role of intravenous drug use and prostitution in spreading AIDS, especially in north-east India and certain urban pockets. According to Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS, India’s success comes from using an evidence-informed and human rights-based approach that is backed by sustained political leadership and civil society engagement. India must now strive to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.