More than Good Teaching: Explicit Language Instruction for ELLs in Mainstream Classrooms Webinar: Kathy Salmon Where are you located? Practice using Elluminate. Use a symbol to mark where you are! #1 Intake #4 Explicit Language Strategies ESL Series #3 Differentiation #2 Language Acquisition Session Overview Review Getting Ready to Teach Strategies 1. Graphic Organizers 2. Vocabulary 3. Grammar 4. Syntax 5. Anchor Charts 6. Technology Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development • is the difference between what a child can do on their own and what they can do with assistance. •It includes all things that a child can do only with the help of a moreknowledgeable other. •It is a scaffolding process, where supports are provided by a parent, teacher, or peer who has already has mastery of the task. http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/constructivism.htm Comprehensible Input Hypothesis The learner learn language he can understand by connecting it to known concepts and prior knowledge. Language that is not understood is just “L2 noise” http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html http://www.languageimpact.com/articles/rw/krashenbk.htm Comprehensible Input + 1 (CI +1) Input must be comprehensible and also needs to be one level of linguistic complexity beyond the learner’s level to develop L2 proficiency. CI + 1 CI + 10 Getting Ready to Teach: Write down the things that you think you should know prior to planning a lesson: Getting Ready to Teach Know the curriculum Be aware of resources (text, digital, assistive, etc.) Be aware of materials Know human resources Know the Learners Language Proficiency Skills, Abilities, Preferences Ask questions Prepare to learn yourself! Principles for Successful Instruction Identify student abilities: Start with what the student can do… and build… and practice… Narrow the focus (every journey starts with a single step) Modify or differentiate opportunities to learn and demonstrate understanding of outcome. Select the strategy that aligns to the outcome and the student’s abilities Bridging to Building Curriculum Instruction Language Intentional Building Student Graphic Organizers: We often use graphic organizers to help ESL students organize information for understanding. However: We often don’t recognize the language that the graphic organizer itself requires for using it: Structure, language, concept We need to teach the language of the Graphic Organizer too! Label the parts Model the language Making Graphic Organizers Work! Each graphic organizer has specific linguistic structures i.e.Venn Diagram Language – comparative and superlative, same and different Concept – same and different Sequence Chart Language – first, second, next, finally, etc. Concept - order Graphic Organizer Functions Match Thinking Skill with Graphic Organizer Cause and Effect = Fish Bone Classifying = Web Sequencing = Time Line WEB Implications for using graphic organizers What is the purpose of the organizer? Identify the organizer that best matches the purpose to the content and/or activity OR make your own Prepare to teach a mini-lesson on the language of the graphic organizer while demonstrating how to use it Post in classroom Graphic Organizers Label the graphic organizer Teach the language required to use the graphic organizer Demonstrate it’s use Prepare to provide support for the student to complete it, use it for further tasks and share it. Graphic Organizer Practice Topic Grade 5 Social Studies. 5.1 Physical Geography of Canada: • What are the major geographical regions, landforms and bodies of water in Canada? (LPP) • How do landforms, bodies of water and natural resources affect the quality of life in Canada? (LPP) • What are the differences and similarities among the geographical regions of Canada? (LPP) • How is the geographical region they live in different from other regions of Canada? (LPP) • What are the factors that determine climate in the diverse geographical regions of Canada (e.g., latitude, water, mountains)? (LPP) • 5.1.3 analyze how people in Canada interact with the environment by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues: • In what ways do natural resources and the physical geography of a region determine the establishment of communities? (ER, LPP) Grade 5 Social Studies, ©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (2007) Explicit Language Instruction Vocabulary Grammar Syntax Explicit Language Instruction Select key language Teach in context Practice in context Select Key Language (Subject Specific) Location Regions of Canada • Provinces and Territories • N, S, E, W Landforms Bodies of Water • • • • Mountain Plain Lowlands Shield • Ocean • Rivers • Lakes Learner Profiles GRADES 4-6 Summary of Vocabulary Statements Level 1: Beginning Understands and uses basic words in simple sentences. Level 2: Developing Understands and uses more familiar, descriptive and some academic words in simple sentences. Level 3: Expanding Understands and uses some descriptive and academic words in longer detailed sentences. Level 4: Bridging Understands and uses more descriptive and academic words in complex sentences. Level 5: Expanding Understands and uses a range of synonyms, antonyms, adjectives and adverbs in a variety of sentence structures. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies Identify vocabulary that relates to task Match target vocabulary for ELP Provide explicit instruction Provide practice in context Provide support, scaffolds to complete task. Select Key Language ELP Outcomes Level Canada Land-forms Bodies of Water 1/2 Identification of Canada and basic geographic regions Province names and Location Mountains Plateaus Hillls Valley Plains Lake River Ocean Bay 3 Identification of all geographic regions. (Compare 2) -review of provinces -Names of regions -Location words Western Cordillera Interior Plains Great Lakes Canadian Shield Arctic Lowlands Arctic Ocean, Hudson’s Bay, Flows, direction, etc. 4/5 What are similarities and differences between geographic regions? (Compare all) -Names of Regions -descriptive language -comparison language Bog, Marsh, Fen Undulating, Rolling, Terraced, Ridged, Level, Steep Description of water, role of water in region, role of water for habitation etc. Some Types of Vocabulary? Subject specific - the words related to curriculum topics (These might also be in context defined.) Context-defined - multiple meanings - transferable words across subjects i.e., “role”, noun clusters; i.e., ”global warming” Academic Words – the language of thinking processes required to do academic tasks; i.e., “ compare”, “contrast” Connectors – words and phrases used to show the relationship of ideas; i.e., ”whereas”, “the most important” Figurative Language –Words or phrases that go beyond literal meaning and require contextual, social and/or cultural reference for understanding i.e., ”fork in the road” K.Salmon, K. Shaw, J. Gilmour adapted from K. Salmon, C.Berndt Identify the type of Vocabulary • Subject specific • Context-defined • Academic Words • • Connectors Figurative Language The Canadian Shield stretches from Arctic to Great Lakes and from the Atlantic to the McKenzie Delta. The soils are thin which make it a poor choice for agriculture in most places. Locate it on the map and describe it’s physical features. Vocabulary Strategies Activate Prior Knowledge Explicit Language Instruction Webs Word Walls (with pictures) Flash Cards Realia (real object) 5 point model Frayer Model Matching, sorting, categorizing Recycling Word searches Crosswords Odd Man Out Pictionary, Hang Man, Concentration Grammar Identify grammar that relates to task Match target grammar for ELP Provide explicit instruction Provide practice in context Provide support, scaffolds to complete task. Grammar Practice ELP Level Grammar 1 Grammar 2 1/2 Subject Verb Agreement There is… There are… Plurals s, ies, es etc. 3 Auxiliary Verb – Subject Verb … is located near… ….are found by…. Prepositions of location Beside, between, above, below, etc. 4/5 Verb choice Find, found, located, has, have, had, Comparative/superlative -er, - est, Grammar Strategies Teach Recognition: Find in text – circle, underline and highlight Pick one: provide on sample correct and one incorrect, identify then correct Copy format: find existing practice sheet that targets grammar focus but is on a different context and subsitute content Dramatization (TPR, Total Physical Response) Practice Underlining and colour coding writing (red verbs, circle adjectives etc.) Cloze (crosswords) Verb Tense Charts Student made poems, raps, mneumonics Syntax – sentence structure Identify sentence structure that relates to task Match target syntax for ELP Provide explicit instruction Provide practice in context Provide support, scaffolds to complete task. Syntax ELP Level Syntax 1 Syntax 2 1/2 This is the province of __________. There are __ provinces. Alberta has mountains, plains, and foothills. 3 Alberta has mountains, plains, and foothills The Cordillera is different than the plains because they are mountains and the plains are flat. 4/5 Alberta has rugged mountains, grassy plains and undulating foothills. The Cordillera is different than the plains because they are steep mountains and the plains are mostly flat lands. The interior plains are made of sedimentary rock, mostly flat and good for farming. Made of sedimentary rock and mostly flat, the interior plans are good for farming. The Canadian Shield is the same as (similar to) the Interior Plains because they are both mostly flat and rocky. Syntax Strategies Models Sentence Frames Cloze QAC Sentence Restructuring Group Editing (morning message) Anchor Charts Some really great teaching and learning experiences are lost with a swipe of an eraser or the flick of a switch. Blackboards, whiteboards and overheads are valuable teaching tools but once erased or not visible the information and ideas are just a memory What are Anchor Chairts? Live generated record of the classroom experiences Teacher and/or student created Consists of: Words, pictures, simple definitions Concepts: connections, cycles, sequences, classifying etc. Posted in classroom for reference or for building cumulative lessons. Helps ESL: maintains “context “for references, recycles, provides meaning Anchor Charts – Pre-made Anchor Charts – Student Made Anchor Charts – Teacher Made Anchor Chart Practice Technology – Assistive Technology Reading Devices: Text to Speech (Word, online) Writing Devices: Speech to text: Translator Devices Dictionary: paper, digital, web based Thesaurus: paper, digital, web based Technology - Websites Preview, Bookmark, Select to maximize student use Preview for: Readability: level of reading Visuals: labeled visuals, language in captions Ease of Use: easy to navigate, find things, voice over? Website Practice We will look at two websites: Which ESL Level would it be appropriate for? http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/cordgeo/index_e.php http://projects.cbe.ab.ca/ict/2learn/kdwajda/canada/studen twork/cordillera.htm ATA Webinar and Print series: Understanding ESL Learners Distinguishing between BICS and CALP: ATA doc. Meeting needs in the classroom: ATA doc. E.L.L.STUDENT Assessment: ATA doc. E.L.L. STUDENT Teaching in the content areas: ATA doc. Differentiating Instruction: ATA doc. Graphic by Ray Campbell http://www.teachers.ab.ca/Professional%20Development/Specialist%20Councils/Special%20Projects/Pages/Index.aspx Wiki - Entry http://erlcdpl.wikispaces.com/message/list/Understanding+Language+Acquisition Type in one “aha” or question Thank You! Your participation was appreciated! Please complete the session evaluation which Jann has pasted into the chat window.