Fagdidaktisk kursus - grammatik

Report
Refleksioner over grammatik
og grammatikundervisning
Ulla Bryanne
Lektor i engelsk
University College Nordjylland
Program
1.Når studerende bliver
lærere
2.Hvad er grammatik?
3.Hvordan lærer man sprog?
4.Hvordan kan man
undervise i grammatik?
Når studerende
bliver lærere
Hvordan blev I selv
undervist i engelsk
grammatik i gymnasiet?
Forskellige dilemmaer i
arbejdet med grammatik
•
•
•
•
Hvorfor arbejde med grammatik?
Præskriptiv eller deskriptiv?
Proaktiv eller reaktiv/integreret?
Teaching grammar or teaching
learners?
• Deklarativ eller procedure viden?
• Induktiv eller deduktiv?
• På dansk eller engelsk?
Hvad er grammatik?
Hvad hører med til
undervisning i
grammatik?
Sprogets tre dimensioner
FORM
MEANING
How is it formed?
(Accuracy)
MORPHOSYNTAX
What does it mean?
(Meaningfulness)
SEMANTICS
USE
When/Why is it used?
(Appropriateness)
PRAGMATICS
Based on Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman: The
Grammar Book, p. 4
Sprogets tre dimensioner
For each of these grammatical structures, which of the three dimensions
do you think Danish learners will have most problems with: how it is
formed, what it means, or when and why to use it?
1. Phrasal verbs (e.g. My boyfriend ran up a huge phone bill)
2. The simple or continuous perspective (e.g. She painted/was painting
the house)
3. The –ly of adverbs (e.g. She took it very seriously)
4. Irregular plural (e.g. mouse – mice)
Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 34
Hvordan lærer man
et sprog?
sprogtilegnelse
• Fig. 2.3
Intersprogsudvikling
• Ordindsamlingsfase
• Udfyldningsfasen
• Sofistikeringsfasen
Traditional assessment:
Interlanguage analysis:
- Focus on the target language
- Focus on the learner language
- Compares learner language to
the target language
- Focus on product
- Points out mistakes
- Focus on the things the learner
cannot do
- Summative assessment
- Sees learner language as a
language in progress
- Focus on process
- Points out progress
- Focus on the things the
learner can do
- Formative assessment
Fig. 2-2. Differences between the traditional way of assessing learner
language and the interlanguage analysis
Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 22
Hvordan kan man
undervise i grammatik?
Sprogets tre dimensioner
- hvordan læres de?
• FORM-dimensionen:
– Mange gentagelser
– Task-Based Learning
• MEANING-dimensionen:
– Dictogloss
– Løbediktat
• USE-dimensionen:
– Rollespil
Eksempel på induktiv øvelse
1. If ‘his girl friend’ is the answer to a question, what is the question we could ask to
get this answer in the following sentence?
Scott gave his girl friend a bunch of flowers
2. Form questions that will give you the words in boldface as answers:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Mr Block found his daughter a job
Bob made a bookcase for Sally
Go find me a pencil
I explained the problem to my dog
Peter gave the book to Alice, who was his girlfriend at the time
He asked a favour of her
3. The words in bold are Indirect Objects in the sentences. Form a rule that will help
you find the Indirect Object. Why are IOs often persons? What does the IO do in a
sentence?
4. Have you noticed what forms IOs can have?
5. In which order do we often find the DO and IO? What happens with the form of
the IO if we use the order IO + DO?
Bruntt & Bryanne, pp. 121-122
Eksempel på automatiseringsøvelse
1.
2.
Here are some dilemmas. Discuss in groups what you would do in the
situations below? You might start: I would… or I might….
Think of other dilemmas you could meet and discuss how to solve
them:
– Your parents don’t approve of your new girl-/boyfriend
– Your best friend and you both have spare time jobs in the same shop.
You discover that (s)he has stolen 2,000kr
– You fall in love with the boyfriend or girlfriend of your best friend.
– A classmate cheated in the last English test. Should you tell someone?
– Your friend has bought a new pair of jeans and thinks she looks
absolutely fantastic. But you actually think they don´t suit her at all
and now she wants to wear them on Friday when she hopes to get a
date with a boy she has a crush on. Would/should you tell her?
Bruntt & Bryanne, web chap. 13, 2-6
• Gå ind på:
http://samfundslitteratur.dk/b
og/handbook-languagedetectives
• Vælg kapitel 10
• Vælg Web activity 5
Integreret
grammatikundervisning
• I tekstlæsning
• Fælles skrivning
Read the following two texts:
A.
When Mr and Mrs Dursley woke up on
the dull, grey Tuesday our story starts,
there was nothing about the cloudy
sky outside to suggest that strange
and mysterious things would soon be
happening all over the country. Mr
Dursley hummed as he picked out his
most boring tie for work and Mrs
Dursley gossiped away happily as she
wrestled a screaming Dudley into his
high chair. None of them noticed a
large, tawny owl flutter past the
window.
B.
When Mr and Mrs Dursley woke up
on the Tuesday our story starts,
there was nothing about the sky
outside to suggest that things would
soon be happening all over the
country. Mr Dursley hummed as he
picked out his tie for work and Mrs
Dursley gossiped away happily as
she wrestled Dudley into his chair.
None of them noticed an owl flutter
past the window
Rowling, J. K.:
Harry Potter and the Philosopher´s Stone,
Bloomsbury, 1997, pp.7-8.
1. Which text enables you to picture and characterize situations, things
and characters precisely and vividly? Explain which text you prefer
and why.
2. Which words are missing in text B and which word class do they
belong to?
3. Which words do they describe and which word class do they
describe?
4. What can you now conclude regarding adjectives?
5. Can you think of other situations or genres in which you would use a
lot of adjectives?
6. Discuss this exercise from a teacher´s perspective, e.g. can you use
this exercise with pupils?
The Teaching-Learning Cycle
Setting the
context
Teacher modelling and
deconstructing
Students constructing
independently
Teacher and students
constructing jointly
Hvad er svært ved verbaltiderne?
• FORM?
• MEANING?
• USE?
Event
BEFORE
AT THE TIME
(point of reference)
AFTERWARDS
Axis
Present
has sung
(the present perfect)
Event
BEFORE
Axis
has sung
Past
Presentsung
had
(the present perfect)
had sung
sang + Adverbial
sang + Adverbial
Past
past perfect
the
(the past (the
perfect
or orthe
simple past + Adv.)
simple past
+ Adv.)
will have
sung
Future
Future
(future perfect)
will have sung
(future perfect)
sings
(the present)
AT THE TIME
(point of reference)
is going to/will sing
(the simple future)
AFTERWARDS
sings
(the present)
sang
(the past)
is going to/will sing
(the simple future)
sang/would sing (habit)
(the simple past or the future
of the past)
will sing
(the simple future)
will sing
(the simple future)
sang
(the past)
will sing
(the simple future)
sang/would sing (habit)
(the simple past or the
future of the past)
will sing
(the simple future)
• Gå ind på:
http://samfundslitteratur.dk/b
og/handbook-languagedetectives
• Vælg kapitel 7
• Vælg
– Web activity 33
– Web activity 34
GRAMMAR  GRAMMARING
Grammar is
something that is
done, rather than
something that is
known.
Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 20
Litteratur
• Bruntt, Karen Lassen & Ulla Bryanne: Handbook for Language Detectives:
Learning and Teaching English Grammar. Samfundsfag. 2012
• Øvelser hertil: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/bog/handbook-languagedetectives#tab2
• Celce-Muria, Marianne & Diane Larsen-Freeman: The Grammar Book: An
ESL/EFL teacher’s Course. Heinle & Heinle. 1999
• Larsen-Freeman, Diane: Teaching Grammar: From Grammar to Grammaring.
Thomson-Heinle. 2003

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