Analyzing Analogies What is an analogy? Analogies are word pairs that show relationships. Analogies provide a visual understanding of the logic of what you are trying to exhibit. Car: Human Example: "My writing is to me, as flying is to a bird." In this statement, I am trying to emphasize the importance of my work as a writer. Just as flying is essential to a bird, so is writing to me. : So exactly what purpose do analogies serve? • Forming analogies is an important and ongoing aspect of how we view the world around us. • They test our vocabulary. • They test our ability to see relationships • They test our knowledge of subject matter • They test our knowledge of every day affairs • They foster critical thinking skills Who uses analogies? Scientists Scientists use an analogies between race and gender to explain gender differences. They also compare animals to humans in anatomy and behavior. Who uses analogies? MathematiciansIn math we develop formulas and equations that are often comparisons. Who uses analogies? Lawyers – The judge might find that the facts of another case are similar to the one at hand. Who uses analogies? Engineers Engineers build models or prototypes of real objects. Who uses analogies? Teachers Educators compare a topic that students are already familiar with, with a new topic that is being introduced so that students can get a better understanding of the topic. A famous example of analogy about knowledge The Allegory of Cave By: Plato Plato created this analogy as a way of introducing the idea of finding the ultimate good of knowledge, truth, and justice. Imagine: A group of people are seated and chained while facing a wall deep in a cave. Behind them is an elevated walkway where others carry objects. A fire behind these objects projects their shadows onto the wall which is the only thing the chained people can see. To those seated people who know nothing else, these shadows are reality. They are not shadows of objects but the objects themselves. One of these people is then unchained and freed. The freed person is then turned around and exposed to the fire and objects. Imagine all that you know as reality suddenly being false and having to learn a whole new reality. Then the freed person is taken out of the cave and into the bright sunlight. After a life of darkness (ignorance), there is pain as the eyes adjust to the rays of the sun. As the eyes gradually adjust, the freed person can begin to understand relations between objects. Now that the freed person has attained this ultimate knowledge of something, he can never go back to being ignorant like he was in the cave, even if he wanted to. The next step is to return to the cave to educate the people still chained. Most likely he would be ridiculed for preaching something so different from their accepted reality. Regardless the freed person will be the happiest because he knows the truth, the ultimate good. Cave: Ignorance Light: _________ Truth: Reality Ignorance: ______ The best strategy to use when completing analogies problems is the bridge sentence strategy. Bridge sentences are helpful because they help you to instantly recognize the answer pair by plugging it into the bridge sentence. If the bridge sentence works with both the question pair and answer pair, then you know you have found the correct answer. Find the relationship between the words in the given word pair and then cross the bridge by selecting the answer containing words related to one another in the same way. There are seven primary types of relationships used in our analogies: Function type/kind part to whole degree definition Lack characteristic The Bridge Strategy Famous analogies “The universe is like a safe to which there is a combination. But the combination is locked up in the safe.” Peter De Vries, Let Me Count the Ways "Do you ever feel that getting up in the morning is like pulling yourself out of quicksand? . . .“ (Jean Betschart, In Control, 2001) “Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get.” Forest Gump movie “... worrying is as effective as trying to solve an algebra equation by chewing bubble gum." Baz Luhrmann, Everybody’s Free (to Wear Sunscreen) Create your own analogy sentence. Possible topics: • Being in __grade • Having friends/Losing friends • Moving to a new neighborhood • A hobby (reading, drawing, singing) • Something you tried for the first time • A fear • School is… • Life is… Student examples: An unsharpened pencil is like a talent undeveloped: a whole lot of potential just needing to be sharpened and defined to a perfect point. • The world is a large set of colored bar graphs. Everyone, whether a different race, or religion, has different levels of talents and abilities. • Our minds are like a baby bird: when we put our minds to a task, we can fly. • A sunrise is like a present. It's beautiful to look at but behind the beauty is something brand new. My Example: Being a teacher is like being a pirate, I am always on the lookout for treasure.