Document

Report
“Tails” from Quarantine:
Animal Importation Stories
from the On-Call Veterinarian
LCDR Heather Bair Brake
Zoonoses Team
Quarantine Border and Health Services Branch
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
Overview

Animal Importation
 Volume & purpose
 Regulatory authority
CDC Zoonoses Team
 Tails from Quarantine

 “Bat on a Plane”
 “Rabid Rescue”
 “Cargo Ship Monkey”
Live Animal Importation - 2006
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service LEMIS Data
 135,731 mammals

243,004 birds

1.5 million reptiles

4.8 million amphibians

228 million fish
CDC Animal Data

287,000 dogs*

26,000 nonhuman primates**
*McQuiston JH et al. Importation of Dogs into the United States: Risks from Rabies and Other Zoonotic
Diseases. Zoonoses and Public Health, 2008: 55;421–426
**Bob Mullan, CDC Zoonoses Team, Personal Communication
Reasons for Animal Importation
Exhibition at zoos
 Education and research
 Scientific conservation programs
 Use as food and other products
 Tourism and immigration
 Commercial pet trade
 Personal pets
 Accidental

Regulating Animals and
Animal Products

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health
Inspection Service (USDA/APHIS)
 Veterinary Services
 Animal Care

Department of Interior
 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
 Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
DHHS, CDC, Division of
Global Migration and Quarantine

Primary focus is human health

Authority to restrict importation of animals is related to
potential health risks to humans

20 CDC Quarantine Stations at major ports

Enforce DHHS statutory authority at ports of entry

Depends heavily on federal partners at ports of entry
CDC Regulatory Authority
Importation of Animals and Animal Products
42 Code of Federal Regulations 71
– Foreign Quarantine
Subpart F – Importations
 71.51 – Dogs and cats
 71.52 – Turtles, tortoises and terrapins
 71.53 – Nonhuman primates
 71.54 – Etiologic agents, hosts and vectors
 71.56 – African rodents
Subpart D – Health Measures at U.S. Ports:
Communicable Diseases
 71.32(b) – Persons, carriers, things
Responding to
a Public Health Threat
42 CFR 71.32(b) : Persons, Carriers, or Things
When persons, carriers, or things on a carrier are
suspected of being infected or contaminated, CDC
may require detention , disinfection, disinfestation,
fumigation, or other measures necessary to prevent the
introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable
diseases.
Zoonoses Team Mission
Prevent the introduction and spread of
diseases of public health significance to
humans from imported live animals or cargo
containing infectious animal products
IT’S A BIRD… IT’S A PLANE… NO.
IT’S A BAT ON A PLANE!
August 5, 2011
6:45 am flight from Madison, WI, to Atlanta, GA
http://img.metro.co.uk/i/pix/2011/08/10/article-1312981208026-0D6121D500000578-530287_304x456.jpg
Risk Assessment




Agent of concern: Rabies
Evaluation of passenger exposure status
 Contact with bat
 Sleeping during the flight
 Mental impairment
 Wounds of unknown origin
Evaluation of crew/ground staff exposure
 Contact with bat
 History of bat infestation at airport
Categorized into no, low, medium or
high risk
Passenger and Crew
Risk Assessment Results

Passengers
 Residents of 11 states
 Mean age: 41.2 years (range: 2 – 63 years)
 47% female

Crew
 2 pilots
 1 flight attendant
 16 ground crew members

Ground crew reported prior bat sightings
No crew or pasengers reported contact with bat
No postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) recommended


Environmental Assessment





No evidence of bats or bat droppings
Airport animal incident record review
 5 bats identified during 2011
Airplane doors kept open overnight
Holes in the ceiling where jetway meets terminal
Jetway canopy folds likely hiding place
Recommendations



Close holes in jetway ceilings
Clean jetways during bat season
Require mandatory employee training
 Custodial staff
 Baggage handlers
THE CASE OF THE RABID RESCUE
Operation Baghdad Pups



Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
International organizes rescues
Rescue of soldiers’ pets from Iraq and
Afghanistan
Rescue initiated by one soldier’s plea to save
his regiment’s mascot, Charlie
Coming to America


2008, a shipment of 24 dogs and 2 cats arrived in
United States from Iraq
Housed in empty
cargo warehouse at
at Newark
Liberty Airport
 Groomed
 Evaluated by veterinarian
Two animals showed neurologic signs
 Cat – had small bite wound on its tail
 Dog – no obvious signs of bite wounds, no
history of exposure to rabid animals
http://blog.syracuse.com/pets/200
8/06/post_13.html

Crusade for Crusader

June 8: Crusader became wobbly
and “snappy,” and developed
diarrhea

June 11: Euthanized following
progressive weakness

June 18: Tissue tested positive
for rabies
“Crusader”
http://gothamist.com/2008/10/03
/rescued_dogs_from_iraq_promp
t_rabie.php
Follow-Up Investigation



June 10: Remaining 23 dogs and one cat
shipped to destinations in 16 states
All animals were located within 2 weeks
Because of exposure to rabid dog:
 Pets:
 Receive rabies booster
 6 months of quarantine as determined by their state
 People:
 13 received PEP
International Pet Rescue

Thousands of dogs and
cats are rescued and
brought into the United
States yearly

Many are rescued off the
streets

Creates health risks for
both humans and animals
Animal Rescue Team Taiwan
Regulations for Importation

CDC requirements:
 Dogs:
– Must be healthy upon arrival AND
– Must be accompanied by proof of valid
rabies vaccination* OR be placed in
confinement
– Must meet state and local government
requirements
 Cats:
– Must be healthy upon arrival
*Rabies vaccination is waived for dogs arriving from rabies-free
countries.
OPERATION SEA MONKEY
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
Event Time Line
3/24/2011
Ship departed
in
3/29/2011
4/13/2011
CBP reported
Ship due to Angola
monkey loose
arrive
on cargo ship
Houston, TX
Pre-Event Planning

Houston Quarantine Station
 Confirmed report and notified branch
leadership and Z-team

Joint agency planning began
Initial Picture from Vessel
Pre-Event Planning

Two conditions for ship to dock
1) NHP is captured and secured in a crate or other
container by crew before ship arrives
2) NHP is dead, double bagged and stored,
preferably cold, before arrival

Guidance developed for each scenario
 Minimize exposure to NHP
 Disinfect soiled areas on vessel
The Response

April 9, 2011: Captain reports NHP capture
Boarding Plan and Responsibilities
 US Coast Guard and CBP
 Security and entry screenings
 Houston Quarantine Staff
 Crew health assessments
 Zoonoses Team
 Assess NHP health and crate integrity
 Inspect areas where NHP had access
Response at Port of Houston

Response at dock
 US Fish and Wildlife
 Vessel agent and
legal representative
 CBP
 CDC
 Transport company

NHP removed from vessel in crate and
transported to registered importer facility
NHP Assessment

No fear of humans
 Possible pet
 Hybrid of species

Physical Exam
 Performed under anesthesia
 Good body condition
 No significant findings
Testing of NHP

First tuberculin skin test placed one day
after arrival
 Positive test
 NHP was euthanized

Necropsy
 No significant findings on gross
pathology
 Filovirus test was negative
 TB cultures, no growth
Conclusions

Risk to crew from NHP was minimal
 No evidence of active tuberculosis in NHP
 Reports indicated that NHP was outside most
of the voyage
 Crew reported no close contact with NHP
There is nowhere in the world from which we are remote and
no one from whom we are disconnected
PNAS, 2004
Preventing Disease Importation

Partnership with state and local health
departments

Partnership with other federal agencies at U.S.
ports of entry

Open communication between CDC and
importing organizations:
 International pet rescue groups
 Zoos
 Research institutions
Acknowledgments
CDC Quarantine Branch
Emily Lankau – DGMQ EIS Officer
Teal Bell – CSTE fellow
Thomas George – Officer in Charge, Houston QS
Zoonoses Team
Adam Langer
Gale Galland
Bob Mullan
Julie Sinclair
Sheryl Shapiro

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