Cardiorespiratory Endurance

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Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Chapter 2
Kinesiology 2115
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
(also called cardiovascular endurance)
• Describes our energy output
• Most important component of physical fitness
for longevity
• Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to
supply oxygen to working muscles over a period
of time
Function of the CR System
• Four components of the CR System
– Heart, blood vessels, blood and lungs
• Purpose
– Take in and deliver oxygenated blood to the cells of the body
– Remove deoxygenated blood and other waste products from the
body
• Which side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to
the lungs?
– ________ atrium and ventricle
• Which side pumps oxygenated blood to the body?
– _______ atrium and ventricle
Regulation of the CR System
• Cardiac Output: the volume of blood pumped per
minute
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Average adult volume?
Stroke Volume: amount of blood pumped per beat
CO = dec HR X inc SV
When the body exercises, how much blood is pumped per
minute?
• With improved fitness, cardiac output will increase
stroke volume and consequently decrease heart rate
• There is a maximum heart rate!
– HR max = 220 - age
Regulation (Continued)
• Maximum cardiac output is effected by maximum
Heart rate
– HR max decreases with age
– What happens to COmax with age?
• Blood Pressure is also a factor
– Blood pressure: the force of blood against vessel walls
– Arterial (contraction) pressure is the systolic pressure
– Pressure when the heart relaxes (between beats) is the
diastolic pressure
– Normal BP?
– Borderline hypertensive?
Energy Systems
• Metabolism
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ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
ATP-PC system
1- 10 seconds
Anaerobic system
10 seconds-3 minutes
Aerobic system
>3 minutes
Most activities combine anaerobic and aerobic systems
• Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2 max)
– Ability to utilize oxygen while working and removing CO2
Energy Systems (Continued)
• VO2 max is one of the best measures of
cardiorespiratory endurance
– The higher your VO2 max, the more you can delay
fatigue-oxygen debt
– (This means you’re more fit)
– You can recover from oxygen debt more quickly
– Can be measured in the lab or a field test
(examples of lab test: treadmill or stationary bike)
Testing VO2 Max
Physiological Benefits of CR
Endurance
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Greater CO: more blood, faster
Longevity
Improved VO2 max: produce more ATP
Lowered blood pressure
Reduced body fat, firm muscles
Increased metabolism, remains elevated after exercise
Increase HDL cholesterol, lower LDL
Less bone mineral loss
Curbing of appetite
Acute/Chronic Changes with
Aerobic (Cardio) Exercise
• Acute
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Increased metabolism
Increase CO
Systolic blood pressure
Ventilation (respiratory rate)
Muscle hypertrophy resulting
in the slowing of digestion
 All return to normal quickly
after exercise ends
• Chronic
– Increased metabolism due to
increase in lean muscle mass
– Lower resting HR
– Increased SV
– Increased cellular activity
– Increased capillarization of
muscle
– Improved oxygen utilization,
muscle glycogen
 Must maintain over a lifespan
or changes will revert back
Aerobic Exercise Plan
Considerations
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Precautions
Objectives
Assess current fitness level
Mode Selection
Safety Concerns
Staying Motivated
Mode of Exercise
• Warm-up
– 5-10 minutes LIGHT cardio followed by LIGHT stretching
• Activity Period
– Overload principle
– Intensity (how hard)
• Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) or
• Target Heart Rate range
– [(220-age) – RHR] x % intensity range + RHR
– % intensity range dependant upon current health status
– Duration (how long)
– Frequency (how often)
• Cool-down
– LIGHT cardio and stretching
Types of Aerobic Exercise
High Aerobic
Potential
Moderate Aerobic
Potential
Low Aerobic
Potential
Aerobic dance
Basketball
Archery
Aerobic walking
Calisthenics
Baseball
Bicycling
Downhill skiing
Bowling
Cross-Country skiing
Field hockey
Football
Hiking uphill
Handball
Golf
Jogging
Racquetball
Softball
Rope jumping
Soccer
Volleyball
Rowing
Squash
Running
Tennis (singles)
Stair climbing
Swimming
Implementing a Program
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Evaluate initial fitness level
Schedule exercise as a part of your day
Find a variety of modes
Keep in target heart rate zone
– Increase duration and frequency before intensity
• Be aware of overtraining
– Start between 500-2000 calories per week
• You don’t want to lose more than 2 lbs per week
• 3500 calories = 1 lb
Benefit to Risk Ratio
• Health Risks (Consult a physician)
• Sudden illness, hidden heart problems
• Stop exercising and contact MD if:
– Pain in the chest, under sternum, or radiating to the arm; also,
any other unexplained pain
– Irregular pulse rate (flutters or rapid rate changes)
– Palpitations in the chest or throat
– Dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion or fainting
Note: Anything out of the ordinary, even if you are in shape
Other Health Considerations
• Muscle soreness and injuries
– Delayed onset muscle soreness is normal - 24-48 hours later
– If it persists, the muscles have been worked too hard
• Basic musculoskeletal injuries
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Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation
• Most exercise injuries are caused by poor warm-up,
mechanics, equipment, increasing intensity or duration
too quickly
Preventing Injuries
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Warm-up thoroughly
Gradual progression
Listen to your body – RICE and ibuprofen
Avoid poor biomechanical situations
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Running in one direction
Running on slanted roads, downhill
Poor shoes
Avoid hard surfaces
• Substitute with lower impact exercises
– Machines (elliptical, stationary bike), swimming, walking
Heat Illnesses
• Check temperature and humidity
– Adjust duration and intensity
– Exercise during cool times, in the shade and wear
loose clothing
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Drink before, during and after exercise
Replenish electrolytes (salt, potassium)
Sedentary, overweight, older at greater risk
Acclimatize

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