Text-Dependent Questions

Report
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Introducing
Text-Dependent Questions
80-90% of the CCSS standards
for reading and literacy require textual analysis
Objectives
• Participants will understand the rationale for the CCSS shift
towards more text dependent questions
• Participants will identify and analyze text dependent
questions by type and by level of complexity
• Participants will review instructional materials to evaluate the
quantity and quality of questioning within the selection/lesson
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Shifts…
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Shift # 2: Text-Dependent Questions
1. Building knowledge through content-rich
nonfiction
2. Reading, writing, and speaking grounded in
evidence from text, both literary and
informational
3. Regular practice with complex text and its
academic language
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Read like a detective!
• Use clues / evidence
from text
• Make non-trivial
inferences based on that
evidence
• Use information from
multiple sources within or
between text to make
arguments
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Standards Progression
CCR Anchor Standard R.1
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to
make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence
when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from
the text.
• Read text (closely)
• Determine (explicitly) what the text says
• Make logical inferences from the text
• Cite (specific) evidence from the text
• Support conclusions drawn from the text
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Progression Procedure
1. Read all the standards from K-8
2. Highlight/underline the verbs
3. Note the skills that are emphasized from one
grade level to the next
4. Discuss your observations with your table
group. Where do you see significant shifts in
the complexity of the standards?
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Time – In and Out of the Text
•
More instructional time spent outside the text means less
time inside the text
•
Departing from the text in classroom discussion privileges
only those who already have experience with the topic
•
It is easier to talk about our experiences than to analyze the
text—especially for students reluctant to engage with
reading
•
The CCSS are College and Career Readiness Standards
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A Kindergarten Example of Keeping Inside the Text
Imagine if your precious nose
were sandwiched in between your toes,
that clearly would not be a treat,
for you'd be forced to smell your feet.
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Teacher: (reads the second stanza) Where is the nose now?
What’s the author telling us?
Amir: I wouldn’t like my nose to be between my toes. My dad’s
feet really stink!
Jessica: My big brother has stinky feet.
Carlos: Yeah, yeah…mine too…peeeyewww!
(more students raise hands to share stories about family members’ with smelly feet).
Teacher: Let’s look at the picture and reread this stanza:
What is the author telling us about the nose being between the
toes?
Maria: I get it. It says that it ‘would not be a treat,’ so it’s not fun to
have to smell feet all of the time.”
Khalid: Oh, like the picture right here (pointing to the illustration).
That would be only what you smell. Not like putting your nose
there, but your nose is there all the time.”
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A Definition
As the name suggests, a text dependent
question specifically asks a question that can
only be answered by referring explicitly back to
the text being read. It does not rely on any
particular background information extraneous
to the text nor depend on students having other
experiences or knowledge; instead it privileges
the text itself and what students can extract
from what is before them.
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Text-Dependent Questions...
•
•
Can only be answered with evidence from the text
•
Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well as larger
ideas, themes, or events
•
Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading
proficiency
•
Can be prompts for writing and discussion questions
Can be literal (checking for understanding) but must also
involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation
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Text-Dependent Questions are NOT…

Low-level literal or simple recall questions

Used to test isolated comprehension strategies

Just questions…
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Non-Examples and Examples
Not Text-Dependent
Text-Dependent
In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out.
Describe a time when you failed at
something.
What makes Casey’s experiences at bat
humorous?
In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr.
King discusses nonviolent protest.
Discuss, in writing, a time when you
wanted to fight against something that
you felt was unfair.
What can you infer from King’s letter
about the letter that he received?
In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says
the nation is dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created
equal. Why is equality an important
value to promote?
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“The Gettysburg Address” mentions the
year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech,
why is this year significant to the events
described in the speech?
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Three Types of Text-Dependent Questions
When you're reviewing a set of questions, consider the
following three categories:
•
•
•
Questions that assess themes and central ideas
Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary
Questions that assess syntax and structure
Level of Thinking (from Bloom’s)
• Literal/Inferential/Analytical/Synthesis/Evaluation
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Interrogating Text-Dependent Questions
 Do the questions target the core understandings and key
ideas of the text?
 Do the questions target the focus standards?
 Do the questions target vocabulary and text structure?
 Do the questions tackle tough sections head-on?
 Is the sequence of text-dependent questions coherent,
leading students to a deeper understanding and analysis of
the text?
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Reviewing Text Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select an informational lesson from your textbook
HM, Pearson, History/SS or Science
Read and analyze the publishers’ questions for pre-reading, during reading
and post reading
Identify text-dependent questions and non-text dependent questions
Categorize the text dependent questions by type and by level of thinking
Question Type
•
Questions that assess themes and central ideas
•
Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary
•
Questions that assess syntax and structure
Level of Thinking (from Bloom’s)
• Literal/Inferential/Analytical/Synthesis/Evaluation
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Synthesize & Evaluate
1) What percentage of the questions in the selection or lesson
are text dependent? (80-90%)
2) Evaluate the quality of the questions with regard to type and
level of thinking.
3) Are there holes? Where are those holes?
*Consider how the quality of a question would be changed if it
included a directive to support an answer with specific evidence
from the text. Look back at CCSS Reading Standard 1 to find your
grade level specific language (quote/cite etc.)
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Text Dependent Questions
GREEN FLAGS: SEE
RED FLAGS: NOT SEE
KNOW the CCSS for ELA / Literacy are being implemented
when…







Rich and rigorous conversations are based on
text.
Students closely analyze text with evidence to
back up their claims and conclusions.
The majority of text-based questions focuses
conversations and writing and require students to
utilize information from text in their answers.
Questions are of high value they are worth
thinking about and answering.
Questions move beyond what is directly stated
and ask students to make nontrivial inferences
from evidence in the text.
Background knowledge is used to illuminate the
text and not replace it.
Students explore how specific words, details,
structure and organization of text impact the
meaning of the text as a whole.
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 The bulk of questions regarding the text can be
answered without reading the text, either
because it is not directly related to the text or
because students can answer by referencing
teacher comments.
 Questions are primarily experience and
background.
 Students do not have to make connections within
the text in order to answer questions.
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A Conversation about Text-Dependent Questions
This 11 minute video features a discussion between New York
State Commissioner of Education John B. King Jr., David
Coleman (contributing author to the Common Core) and Kate
Gerson (a Sr. Fellow with the Regents Research Fund) that
addresses the shift to Text-Based Answers.
http://engageny.org/resource/common-core-in-ela-literacy-shift-4-text-based-answers/
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Questions to Consider After Viewing Video
Independently answer the following questions and then
discuss with a colleague:
 What does it mean to ask text-based questions?
 How will this impact our instruction?
 What challenges will we face as we make this shift?
 What are the implications for teacher planning and for
teacher planning time in schools?
 What questions will take the students deeper into this text
and cause them to pay careful attention to it?
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In Conclusion
We hope that this presentation has been helpful in providing you
with an introduction to the topic of text dependent questions.
Today has been an initial introduction. The topic will require
extended professional development as we move forward.
MORE TO COME……….
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