Born December 6th, 1888 › Died August 3rd, 1969 (after the Hippies) Received a B.A. in 1910 Ph.D. in 1915 Research assistant to Prof. Charles Manning Child › Studed under him earlier › Worked with him for SIXTEEN (16) years on his studies of lower invertebrates › Published over FORTY research articles. Wrote two laboratory manuals › Laboratory Manual for Elementary Zoology (1919, 1929) › Laboratory Manual for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (1922, 1942) Professional Life › 1931 - Hyman’s position at the University of › Developed Parkinson’s Chicago ended disease during the 1950s Department chair retired but continued her long No longer had a supporter in the department work days › According to Margaret W Rossiter Was in a wheelchair, under Other department members found her abrasive the care of a nurse, when › May (probably) have been ostracized for her she completed the sixth Jewish heritage volume of The Invertebrates › Abandonment occurred at the beginning of UNAFFECTIONATE MOTHER the depression › Dun dun DUN!!!!!! Increasing difficulty for woman to find jobs in sciences Spent the next six years unaffiliated with any institution Continued her research independently at the American Museum of Natural History Recognizing need & worthiness of her research, the museum offered office space & laboratory in 1937 – UNPAID! › Despite obstacles, she persisted in preparation of the manuscripts for The Invertebrates. › In 1967, suffering from Parkinson's Disease and forced to discontinue work › 1916 - An analysis of the process of regeneration in certain microdrilous oligochaetes. J. Exp. Zool. 20:99-163. 1917 - Metabolic gradients in amoeba and their relation to the mechanism of amoeboid motion. J. Exp. ZooL 24:55-99. 1919 - A laboratory manual for elementary zoology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1919 - Physiological studies on planaria. III. Oxygen consumption in relation to age (size) differences. Biol. Bull. 37:388-403. 1919 - With C. M. Child. The axial gradients in hydrozoa. 1. Hydra. Biol. Bull. 36:183-223. 1920 - The axial gradients in hydrozoa. III. Experiments on the gradient of tubularia. Biol. Bull. 38:353-403. 1922 - A laboratory manual for comparative vertebrate anatomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1924 - With B. H. Willier and S. A. Rifenburgh. Physiological studies on planaria. VI. A respiratory and histochemical study of the source of the increased metabolism after feeding. J. Exp. Zool. 40:473-94. 1925 - Respiratory differences along the axis of the sponge Grantia. Biol. Bull. 48:379-88. 1926 - The metabolic gradients of vertebrate embryos. II. The brook lamprey. J. Morphol. 42:111- 41. 1927 - The metabolic gradients of vertebrate embryos. III. The chick. Biol. Bull. 52:1-38. 1929 - A laboratory manual for elementary zoology. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1931 - Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of North American triclad turbellaria. IV Recent European revisions of the triclads and their application to the American forms, with a key to the latter and new notes on distribution. Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 50:316-35. 1931 - Taxonomic studies on the hydras of North America. IV Description of three new species with a key to the known species. Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 50:302-15. 1932 - Relation of oxygen tension to oxygen consumption in Nereis virens. J. Exp. Zool. 61:209-2 1. Strengths: › Critical approach: refuted overgeneralized theories › Advocated an “open-minded” approach that did not just rely on older theories › Elegant writer Weaknesses: › Often misunderstood: changed her mind often some contradictory statements in her writing › Major Biological Theories have changed over time 1920s!!! (and later) Great Depression!! Intellectual Zeitgeist Pathway to Methods used in Psychology › Her Lab Manual!!! MOST influential comparative invertebrate zoologist › Of the 20th century › In the English-speaking world Conducted experimental research on the metabolic and developmental physiology of a host of invertebrates and vertebrate embryos › During the first part of her career Views on invertebrate evolution and phylogeny have become widely incorporated into textbooks › Until very recently her ideas had been equated with ‘traditional’ or ‘classical’ views on animal evolution. Enduring fame and significance for modern evo-devo is primarily based upon her magisterial six-volume series › The Invertebrates › Most encompassing single-author synthesis of invertebrate structure and development of the 20th century. Had a lasting influence on teaching Widely used laboratory manuals for elementary zoology & comparative vertebrate anatomy. Physiological approach to understanding the development of organisms The Invertebrates: summarized some of the most important questions regarding comparative zoology Synthesized a HUGE amount of information for zoologists: some of her works are still vital to research today Barely mentioned in most of historiography of modern evolutionary development Her award from 1969 Scholarship info › Go get that money! (McConnell 1967, p. viii) Hast, Adele. "Libbie Henrietta Hyman." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 1 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive. April 18, 2011 <http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/hyman-libbiehenrietta>.http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/hyman-libbie-henrietta Hyman, L. H. (1940). A laboratory manual for comparative vertebrate anatomy . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1922) Hyman, L. H., & Hutchinson, G. E. (1999, February 9). Libbie Henrietta Hyman. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from Annelida.net website: http://www.annelida.net/bio/hyman.html Jenner, R. A. (2004, September 15). Libbie Henrietta Hyman (1888–1969): From developmental mechanics to the evolution of animal body plans. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 302B(5), 413-423. doi:10.1002/jez.b.21019 McConnell, J. V. (1967). A manual of psychological experimentation on planarians. Ann Arbor: Journal of Biological Psychology. Pagerankstudio.com. (2010, September 30). (1888-1969) American Zoologist. In Libbie Hyman’s Biography, life and Career Facts, Invented. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from Pagerankstudio.com website: http://pagerankstudio.com/Blog/2010/09/ libbie-hymansbiography-life-and-career-facts-invented/ Scholarships.com. (2011). Libbie H. Hyman Memorial Scholarship. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from Scholarships.com website: http://www.scholarships.com/financial-aid/college-scholarships/ scholarships-by-major/biology-scholarships/libbie-h-hyman-memorial-scholarship/ Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2004). A History of Modern Psychology (8th ed.). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.