AIR TRAVEL GEOGRAPHY - pambrowncorninghighschool

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AIR TRAVEL GEOGRAPHY
INTERNATIONAL
TRAVEL AND TOURISM
OBJECTIVES:
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2.1 DISCUSS 8 FREEDOMS OF THE AIR
2.2 DESCRIBE THE INTERNATIONAL
AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA)
2.3 DEFINE INTERLINE TRAVEL
2.4. DEFINE CITY, AIRPORT & AIRLINE
CODES
2.5 CALCULATE INTERNTIONAL TIME
Traveling out of your country
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Border: line that separates countries
• each country owns the land, ocean, and
airspace within its borders
• An airline must have the country’s
permission to fly in its airspace
• International air traffic agreements specify
frequency of flights & number of air routes
• These regulations were established by the
United Nations in 1944 (UN)
8 Freedoms of the Air
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Fly through the airspace of another
country without landing
Land in another country for technical
reasons ( emergency, refuel, repairs)
Fly from one country to another country to
drop off passengers and cargo
Pick up passengers and cargo from one
country and fly them back to the
originating country
8 Freedoms of the Air
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Fly from Country A to pick up passengers and
cargo in Country B and drop them off in
Country C
Fly between two countries other than the
country of origin and make stop over in the
country of origin
Fly between 2 countries other than the
country of origin with no stopover in the
country of origin
Fly solely within another country
NATIONAL AIRLINES
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Many countries have a national airline
These carry the colors of their
countries’ flags on the tail sections or
fuselage of the plane
These airlines are called Flag Carriers
EXAMPLE: Lufthansa is from Germany
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Egyptair is the flag carrier of Egypt
INTERNATIONAL AIR
TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION
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IATA:
founded in 1945
Principal governing body of worldwide airline
operations
Regulates international air traffic
Sets safety standards
Sets flight schedules
Sets reservation, passenger and baggage
regulations
Investigates accidents
ENGLISH LANGUAGE
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English is the universal language of the
travel industry
The universal aviation code is written in
English and is used by travel agents
and aviation workers to minimize errors
when spelling names of passengers
UNIVERSAL AVIATION CODE
A-Alpha
B-Bravo
C-Charlie
D-Delta
E-Echo
F-Foxtrot
G-Golf
H-Hotel
I-India
J-Juliet
K-Kilo
L-Lima
M-Mike
N-November
O-Oslo
P-Papa
Q-Quebec
R-Romeo
S-Sierra
T-Tango
U-Uniform
V-Victor
W-Whiskey
X-X ray
Y-Yankee
Z-Zulu
INTERLINE TRAVEL
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Interline travel: where passengers are
able to fly on different carriers during
their trip
Interline agreement means two or more
airlines have agreed to transport the
other’s passengers and baggage at
connecting points
Airlines accept tickets of other airlines
IATA AREAS OF TRAVEL
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3 AREAS OF TRAVEL
Areas are called Traffic Conferences
Used to establish airfare prices and
flying zones
TRAFFIC CONFERENCES
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Area 1 or TC 1: Western Hemisphere
or WH includes:
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North America
Central America (excluding Panama)
South America ( including Panama)
The Caribbean
Greenland
Bermuda
TRAFFIC CONFERENCES
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Area 2 or TC 2: Europe and Africa
which includes:
• Europe (including Morocco, Algeria,
Tunisia, and Russia west of the Ural
Mountains)
• The Middle East ( including Egypt and
Sudan)
• Africa (Excluding Egypt, Sudan, Morocco,
Algeria, and Tunisia)
TRAFFIC CONFERENCES
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Area 3 or TC 3: Australasia which
includes:
• Asia (including Russia east of the Ural
Mountains)
• Australia
• New Zealand
• The South Pacific
CITY, AIRPORT, & AIRLINE
CODES
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IATA assigns codes to distinguish cities,
airports, and airlines around the world
A three-letter location code identifies a
city or an airport
• example:
BUE=Buenos Aires, Argentina
CAI= Cairo, Egypt
LON= London, England
PAR= Paris, France
SIN= Singapore, Singapore
CITY AND AIRPORT CODES
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Some city and airport codes are formed
by using three letters from the city’s
name
• Example:
BKK=Bangkok, Thailand
HKG=Hong Kong, Hong Kong
NBO=Nairobi, Kenya
TYO=Tokyo, Japan
ZRH=Zurich, Switzerland
AIRLINE CODES
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Airline codes are often difficult to
recognize
• Example:
AT=Royal Air Moroc
AZ=Alitalia
BA=British Airways
JL=Japan Air Lines
MS=Egypt Air
LA=Lan Chile
AIR FARES & ROUTES
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Fares differ depending on air routes
All directions of travel have a 2-letter code
• Example:
AF=via Africa
AP=via the Atlantic & Pacific
AT=via the Atlantic
EH=Eastern Hemisphere
EU=via Europe
PO=via North Pole
WH=Western Hemisphere

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