slides

Report
Integrity & Malware
Dan Fleck
CS469 Security Engineering
Some of the slides are modified with permission from Quan Jia.
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Coming up: Integrity – Who Cares?
Integrity – Who Cares?
• IARPA – Funded GMU (and others) to research software
validation.
• Securely Taking On New Executable Software Of Uncertain
Provenance (STONESOUP) is a multi-year Intelligence Advanced
Research Projects Activity (IARPA)
• Overall Goal: Eliminate effects of software vulnerabilities in
code.
• GMU’s Part: Determine if a program has been compromised
(taken over) by malware to do something it shouldn’t be doing
and report to another component
• How we do it: Binary Instrumentation!
Coming up: Program Compromise: SQL Injection
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Program Compromise: SQL Injection
• SQL Injection – by inserting code into the data, a poorly
written program can accidentally run unexpected SQL:
• name: Dan Fleck’; update personnel set password=‘abc123’;
• Code executes like this:
• select account number from accounts where
name=Dan Fleck’; update personnel set password=‘abc123’;
• Return oriented programming (more direct)
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Coming up: Program Compromise: Buffer Overflow
Program Compromise: Buffer Overflow
Overflowing:
• Input data to a program that gets stored in a local variable
(variable “A” for example)
• No bounds checking… can overwrite the Return Address
• strcpy in C does not check bounds!
Coming up: Program Exploit: Buffer Overflow
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Program Exploit: Buffer Overflow
Exploiting:
• Get a program to store information on the heap somehow
• Add to the stack:
• NOP sled
• Shell Code
• Return address into the NOP sled
Coming up: Protections
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Protections
• Windows Data Execution Protection – don’t execute code on
the stack! W X protection – no memory address can be
both writeable and executable
• (Circa 2004 – Win XP sp 2)
• gcc –fstack-protector --- add in stack canaries
• Can we do it without executing code on the stack?
• Return oriented programming (ROP)
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Coming up: Return Oriented Programming
Return Oriented Programming
• Re-use code that already exists in the system.
• Steps:
• Take control on the stack (somehow). Put variables you need on
the stack for a specific function call, and jump to the function –
Solar 1997
• Nergal 2001 – Phrack article – how to chain multiple function
calls
• Defense: hardware supported non-executable segments
introduced. No longer could store function arguments on the
stack, must be in registers.
• Stealth 2005 – use chunks of functions that start by copying
values from the stack into registers. DEPLib created which
automates this approach. Loops and conditionals unsupported.
• Shacham 2007 - introduces “return oriented programming”
which allows loops and conditionals (These chunks are “gadgets”)
Coming up: Return Oriented Programming
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Return Oriented Programming
• Gadget:
• small piece of binary code that does some simple operation and
returns:
• add r1, r2
• return
• Find lots of these by disassembling the binary program to create a
gadget library (use automated tools (e.g. ROPGadget))
• Chain them together by modifying the stack
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Coming up: ROP
Ref: http://www.drdobbs.com/security/anatomy-of-a-stack-smashing-attack-and-h/240001832
ROP
Normal
program uses
instruction
pointer
ROP program
uses stack
pointer
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Coming up: Defenses
Defenses
• Many groups are trying to stop ROP.
• One student we work with did okay
• http://www.microsoft.com/security/bluehatprize/
• But what about the next thing? and the next?
• Can we check the integrity of the program based on behavior?
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Coming up: Monitoring Behavior
Monitoring Behavior
• Another approach is to monitor the behaviors of an application
and determine if it’s out of “normal”
• Challenges:
• What is normal?
• Speed versus security tradeoff
• others…
• Our specific part is resource-based attacks:
• Does the program use more resources than it should?
• Disk, CPU, memory, network, semaphores.
Coming up: PIN Tools
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PIN Tools
• Intel’s PIN tool is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool
• Lets you run a program and instrument it while it is running.
• For example, find all the function calls and add in your own
code before/after the call.
• Lets see an example:
http://software.intel.com/sites/landingpage/pintool/docs/61206/
Pin/html/index.html#EXAMPLES
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Coming up: What is Instrumentation?
What is Instrumentation?
• A technique that inserts extra code into a program
to collect runtime information.
•
Program analysis : performance profiling, error
detection, capture & replay
•
Architectural study : processor and cache simulation,
trace collection
•
Binary translation : Modify program behavior, emulate
unsupported instructions
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Coming up: Instrumentation Approaches
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Instrumentation Approaches
• Source Code Instrumentation (SCI)
– instrument source programs
• Binary Instrumentation (BI)
•
– instrument binary executable directly
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Coming up: SCI Example (Code Coverage)
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SCI Example (Code Coverage)
Original Program
• void foo() {
• bool found=false;
• for (int i=0; i<100; ++i) {
•
if (i==50) break;
•
if (i==20) found=tru
e;
• }
• printf("foo\n");
• }
Coming up: Binary Instrumentation (BI)
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Instrumented Program
•
•
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•
•
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char inst[5];
void foo() {
bool found=false; inst[0]=1;
for (int i=0; i<100; ++i) {
if (i==50) {
inst[1]=1;break;}if (i==20) {
inst[2]=1;found=true;}
inst[3]=1;
}
printf("foo\n");
inst[4]=1;
}
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Binary Instrumentation (BI)
• Static binary instrumentation – inserts additional
code and data before execution and generates a
persistent modified executable
• Dynamic binary instrumentation – inserts additional
code and data during execution without making any
permanent modifications to the executable.
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Coming up: BI Example – Instruction Count
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BI Example – Instruction Count
counter++;
sub $0xff, %edx
counter++;
cmp %esi, %edx
counter++;
jle <L1>
counter++;
mov $0x1, %edi
counter++;
add $0x10, %eax
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Coming
up: BI Example – Instruction Trace
BI Example – Instruction Trace
Print(ip);
sub $0xff, %edx
Print(ip);
cmp %esi, %edx
Print(ip);
jle <L1>
Print(ip);
mov $0x1, %edi
Print(ip);
add $0x10, %eax
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Coming
up: Advantages
Advantages
• Binary instrumentation
•
•
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Language independent
Machine-level view
Instrument legacy/proprietary software
• Dynamic instrumentation
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•
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No need to recompile or relink
Discover code at runtime
Handle dynamically-generated code
Attach to running processes
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Coming up: Advantages of Pin Instrumentation
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Advantages of Pin Instrumentation
• Easy-to-use Instrumentation:
• Uses dynamic instrumentation - Do not need source code, recompilation, post-linking
• Programmable Instrumentation:
• Provides rich APIs to write in C/C++ your own instrumentation tools (called
Pintools)
• Multiplatform:
• Supports x86, x86-64, Itanium, Xscale
• OS’s: Windows, Linux, OSX, Android
• Robust:
• Instruments real-life applications: Database, web browsers, …
• Instruments multithreaded applications
• Supports signals
• Efficient:
• Applies compiler optimizations on instrumentation code
Coming up: Widely Used and Supported
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Widely Used and Supported
• Large user base in academia and industry
• 30,000+ downloads
• 700+ citations
• Active mailing list (Pinheads)
• Actively developed at Intel
• Intel products and internal tools depend on it
• Nightly testing of 25000 binaries on 15 platforms
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Coming
up: Using Pin
Using Pin
• Launch and instrument an application
$ pin –t pintool.so –- application
Instrumentation engine
(provided in the kit)
Instrumentation tool
(write your own, or use one provided
in the kit)
Attach to and instrument an application
$ pin –t pintool.so –pid 1234
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Coming
up: Pin and Pintools
Pin and Pintools
• Pin – the instrumentation engine
• Pintool – the instrumentation program
• Pin provides the framework and API, Pintools run on
Pin to perform meaningful tasks.
• Pintools
– Written in C/C++ using Pin APIs
– Many open source examples provided with the Pin kit
– Certain Do’s and Don’ts apply
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Coming up: Pin Instrumentation Capabilities
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Pin Instrumentation Capabilities
• Replace application functions with your own.
• Fully examine any application instruction – insert a call to your
instrumenting function whenever that instruction executes.
• Pass a large set of supported parameters to your instrumenting
function.
• Register values (including IP), Register values by reference (for
modification)
• Memory addresses read/written by the instruction
• Full register context
• Track function calls including syscalls and examine/change
arguments.
• Track application threads.
• Intercept signals.
• Instrument a process tree.
………
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Coming up: Pintool 1: Instruction Count
Pintool 1: Instruction Count
counter++;
sub $0xff, %edx
counter++;
cmp %esi, %edx
counter++;
jle <L1>
counter++;
mov $0x1, %edi
counter++;
add $0x10, %eax
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See icount example
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Coming
up: Pintool 1: Invocation
Pintool 1: Invocation
• Windows examples:
•> pin.exe -t inscount0.dll -- dir.exe
•> pin.exe -t inscount0.dll -o incount.out -- gzip.exe FILE
• Linux examples:
•$ pin -t inscount0.so -- /bin/ls
•$ pin -t inscount0.so -o incount.out -- gzip FILE
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Coming up: Pintool 1: Invocation
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Pintool 1:
ManualExamples/inscount0.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include "pin.h"
UINT64 icount = 0;
void docount() { icount++; }
analysis routine
instrumentation routine
void Instruction(INS ins, void *v)
{
INS_InsertCall(ins, IPOINT_BEFORE, (AFUNPTR)docount, IARG_END);
}
switch to pin stack
void Fini(INT32 code, void *v)
save registers
{ std::cerr << "Count " << icount << endl; }
call docount
restore registers
int main(int argc, char * argv[])
switch to app stack
{
PIN_Init(argc, argv);
INS_AddInstrumentFunction(Instruction, 0);
PIN_AddFiniFunction(Fini, 0);
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PIN_StartProgram();
return 0;
}
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Coming
up: Pin Instrumentation APIs
Pin Instrumentation APIs
• Basic APIs are architecture independent:
• Provide common functionalities like determining:
• Control-flow changes
• Memory accesses
• Architecture-specific APIs
• E.g., Info about segmentation registers on IA32
• Call-based APIs:
• Instrumentation routines
• Analysis routines
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Coming up: Pintool 2: Instruction Trace
Pintool 2: Instruction Trace
Print(ip);
sub $0xff, %edx
Print(ip);
cmp %esi, %edx
Print(ip);
jle <L1>
Print(ip);
mov $0x1, %edi
Print(ip);
add $0x10, %eax
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Coming
up: Pintool 2: Instruction Trace
Pintool 2:
#include <stdio.h>
#include "pin.H"
FILE * trace;
ManualExamples/itrace.cpp
argument to analysis routine
void printip(void *ip) { fprintf(trace, "%p\n", ip); }
analysis routine
void Instruction(INS ins, void *v) {
INS_InsertCall(ins, IPOINT_BEFORE, (AFUNPTR)printip,
IARG_INST_PTR, IARG_END);
instrumentation routine
}
void Fini(INT32 code, void *v) { fclose(trace); }
int main(int argc, char * argv[]) {
trace = fopen("itrace.out", "w");
PIN_Init(argc, argv);
INS_AddInstrumentFunction(Instruction, 0);
PIN_AddFiniFunction(Fini, 0);
PIN_StartProgram();
return 0;
}
Coming up: Examples of Arguments to Analysis Routine
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Examples of Arguments to Analysis Routine
• IARG_INST_PTR
• Instruction pointer (program counter) value
• IARG_UINT32 <value>
• An integer value
• IARG_REG_VALUE <register name>
• Value of the register specified
• IARG_BRANCH_TARGET_ADDR
• Target address of the branch instrumented
• IARG_MEMORY_READ_EA
• Effective address of a memory read
And many more … (refer to the Pin manual for details)
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Coming
up: Instrumentation Points
Instrumentation Points
• Instrument points relative to an instruction:
• Before (IPOINT_BEFORE)
• After:
• Fall-through edge (IPOINT_AFTER)
• Taken edge (IPOINT_TAKEN)
cmp %esi, %edx
count()
count()
jle <L1>
mov $0x1, %edi
count()
<L1>:
mov $0x8,%edi
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Coming up: Instrumentation Granularity
Instrumentation Granularity
Instrumentation can be done at three different granularities:
• Instruction
• Basic block
• A sequence of instructions terminated
at a control-flow changing instruction
• Single entry, single exit
• Trace
• A sequence of basic blocks terminated
at an unconditional control-flow
changing instruction
• Single entry, multiple exits
sub $0xff, %edx
cmp %esi, %edx
jle <L1>
mov $0x1, %edi
add $0x10, %eax
jmp <L2>
1 Trace, 2 BBs, 6 insts
jumpmix example – which types of jump
instructions are called?
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Coming
up: Alternative Hw #2
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Alternative Hw #2
•
Instead of the given HW #2 you can write a PIN tool
•
Task: Write a PIN tool that monitors which files are
opened by a program and stores it to a log.
•
Turn in your program and the output of it running in lieu
of Hw#2.
•
Note: This is much harder than the original Hw#2, but
more fun  .
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Coming up: Lessons
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Lessons
• Integrity of programs can be violated in many ways
• Many defenses exist
• Monitoring programs for normal can be done through
binary instrumentation
• PIN is one example of a powerful binary instrumentation
tool
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Coming up: References
References
• http://blog.zynamics.com/2010/03/12/a-gentle-introductionto-return-oriented-programming/
• http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~hovav/dist/geometry.pdf
• Stealth: http://www.suse.de/~krahmer/no-nx.pdf
• Nergel,
http://www.phrack.com/issues.html?issue=58&id=4#article
• http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~hovav/dist/rop.pdf
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End of presentation

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