e-Readiness - ABPMP – Saudi Chapter

Report
By: Aqel M. Aqel
‫أقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق ‪ 1‬خلق اإلنسان من علق‬
‫اقرأ وربك األكرم ‪3‬الذي علم بالق لم‬
‫علم اإلنسان ما لم يعلم‬
‫صدق اهلل العظيم‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪2‬‬


Measuring Business Process Maturity while
assessing organizational readiness for
organizational e-transformation.
Illustrates a proposed comprehensive model
for assessing organizational readiness
including business process criteria in addition
to other organizational e-readiness billers
(strategy, info technology, IT Security and
ability to change).

Introduction:

Towards A Unified Organizational Readiness Model:
◦ E-Transformation Concept (Technology Enabled Government / TGovernment)
◦ Importance Of E-Transformation
◦ Need For Readiness Model
Model Components (Includes Business Process Readiness)
Business Process Readiness Criteria (Illustration And How To
Measure)
◦
Inter-Agencies Processes
◦
National Level Business Process Management Bureau (NBPMB)
◦
◦

Closure
◦ Quick summary for our lecture
◦ Conclusion (adopting national readiness model, and national level
NBPMB)
◦ E-Transformation Concept:
 Technology Enabled Government / T-Government
◦ Importance Of E-Transformation
◦ Need For Readiness Model
E-Transformation: Opportunities and Barriers
• Total Dependency on IT
• IT Impacts on Societies:
–
–
–
–
Politically
Economically
Socially
Service delivery
• Managerial revolution is running
parallel with IT revolution.
• Information / Knowledge societies
E-Transformation: Opportunities and Barriers

What is e-Transformation:
◦ The process of transforming in to an
innovative & effective IT-enabled organization
is e-Transformation.

Transformation levels:
◦
◦
◦
◦
Government Agencies
Private Sector
Academic institutions
Persons and societies
E-Transformation: Opportunities and barriers
• Barriers
– Infrastructural
– Financial
– Organizational
– Legislative
– Security
– Others
E-Readiness Concept
e-Readiness
Criteria
Method
s
Initiatives
Existing
Situation
Audits
Monitoring
(Initiatives (projects
Desired Situation
Opportunities
Limitations
Infrastructure
e-Services
Training
Change Management
Barriers
Using e-Readiness to facilitate organizational transformation
Source: Aqel M. Aqal.
Uncertainties
E-Readiness Concept
• e-Readiness is the generic capacity or
aptitude of the public sector to use ICT for
encapsulating public services and deploying
to the public high quality information
(explicit knowledge) and effective
communication tools that support human
development «
[WPSR,2003, page 135].
Generic
Capacity
Use
Information
Technology
Provide Information
Provide Service
Human
Development
E-Readiness Concept
• Human Development
– E- Government initiatives classification
2003)
• Wasteful
• Pointless
• Meaningful
(UN,
E-Readiness
Concept
E-Readiness Levels
1. Global
2. Regional
3. National
4. Industries
/Business Sectors
5. Organizational
6. Community
7. Personal
e-Readiness levels
Source: Aqel
Industry
Readiness
Community &
Personal
Readiness
Organizational
Readiness
National e-Readiness billers

National eReadiness
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Figure 4.2: National e-Government Readiness
Source: Author
Telecom
Banking Sector
Academic
Business Sectors
Legal
Individuals and
Society
Organizational E-Readiness
• Answering the Question:
– What preparations management should provide to digital
era.
• Org. Readiness depends:
–
–
–
–
National e-gov model.
Organization Role in national e-trans.
Nature of relations with others.
General maturity technically and managerially.
Importance of e-readiness model
• Using an e-readiness model:
– Will Help formulating strategic plans
based on identified needs.
– Justify projects and its dependencies
– Upgrading to higher levels of maturity
– Unify criteria to assess and compare
readiness
Importance of e-readiness model
• E-readiness criteria depends on ideal
organization characterized in “learning
organization”.
• "learning organizations continuously learns
through its members individually and
collectively to create a sustainable
competitive advantage by effectively
managing internally and externally
generated change" [Sudharatna & Li, 2007].
E-Readiness Concept
Layers of readiness
• Learning org. characteristics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cultural values
Leadership
Commitment and empowerment
Communication, knowledge transfer
Employee characteristics and
performance upgrading
Organizational e-Readiness Model
Organizational E-Readiness Model
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Strategy Readiness
Business Process
IT Infrastructure
Org. Culture readiness (Ability to Change)
IT Security
Organizational e-Readiness
1- Strategy
Organizational e-Readiness
1. Strategy
• Strategic management and transformational
leadership style are two key factors that
contribute to the success of e-government
initiatives
[Wenbo, 2002]
Organizational e-Readiness
1. Strategy
• Public agencies with considerable goal
ambiguity tend to have a difficult time
strategizing and implementing
management innovations.
Wechsler et. al. 1997
Organizational e-Readiness
1. Strategy

Strategy Readiness
◦ Ability for strategic planning
◦ Ability to strategic management
1. Organizational structure
2. Functions and services
3. Performance management
4. Informational Model
Organizational e-Readiness
1. Strategy

1.1 Organizational
Structure
◦ "Organizational
structure is the way
in which the
interrelated groups
of an organization
are constructed.
The main concerns
are effective
communication and
coordination"
[wikipedia, 2007]
Managed OR mechanism
Used effectively in HR
Identify relationships and authorities
Covers all activities including ICT
Communicated and recognized
Organizational structure is documented
Organizational e-Readiness
1. Strategy

1.2 Functions and services
◦ What products and services we deliver in order to
achieve our strategy.
 What Departments are doing
 What products and Services they are providing to:




Individuals
Small Businesses
Corporates
Other key stakeholders
Organizational e-Readiness
1. Strategy

1.2 Functions and services
◦ Evaluate functions and services
◦ Are services satisfying and supporting business
strategy
◦ Clear responsibilities
◦ Level of Automation
◦ Integration with HR incentive System

1.3 Performance management
◦ Performance management is "a systematic, integrated
management approach that links enterprise strategy to core
processes and activities. By providing planning, budgeting,
analysis and reporting capabilities, performance
management allows the business to be "run by the
numbers" and measurement to drive management
decisions." [wikipedia, 2007]
◦ Strategic planning can help in managing change through:
linking agency strategies with performance measures".
[Berry, 2007]
◦ "Monitoring progress made toward achieving program goals
requires systematic measurement. ICT has facilitated the
processing of unprecedented amounts of program data
more efficiently than ever before" [Newcomer, 2007].

1.4 Informational Model
◦ "A high-level roadmap containing software,
hardware, and other information technology
requirements for health & secured environment
managed information systems HSE-MIS" [HSE-
MIS, 2001].
◦ It’s Part of organization strategy as all
stakeholders need to exchange information.
◦ Planning for information provision should be
parallel with business strategy.
Organizational e-Readiness
2-Business Process
Organizational e-Readiness
2-Business Process


"collection of activities that takes one or more
kinds of input and creates an output that is of
value"
[Credit research foundation, 2007],
"business process is a recipe for achieving a
commercial result. Each business process has
inputs, method and outputs. The inputs are a prerequisite that must be in place before the method
can be put into practice. When the method is
applied to the inputs then certain outputs will be
created"
[wikipedia, 2007].
Organizational e-Readiness
2- Business Process
• Evaluation criteria
1. Documentation
2. Effectiveness
3. Performance
Management
4. Automation
Organizational e-Readiness
2- Business Process
• 2.1 Documentation
– Base for other criteria
– Sanctions & decorees are not detailed BP
documents
– Organizations should realize and
document its business processes in
modern and structured way.
Organizational e-Readiness
2- Business Process
• 2.1 Documentation
1. Availability of a business process
committee
2. Availability of updated documentation
for all strategic processes
3. Accessibility to documentation for staff
4. Availability of Electronic workflow
systems
5. Integration of BPD to human resources
roles and responsibilities.
6. Integration of BPD to automated
systems.
Organizational e-Readiness
2-Business Process
2.2 Effectiveness
1. Clarity of process drivers, initiators, triggers
and inputs.
2. Clarity of process roles and responsibilities in
various stages
3. Clarity of process exceptions and predefined
handlings
4. Clarity of process controls and related
objectives
5. Clarity of process outputs in various stages
6. Mechanisms to monitor adherence to process
qualities
7. level of support available at each stage
Organizational e-Readiness
2-Business Process
• 2.3 Performance Management
– Aims at business process optimization and
stakeholders' satisfaction.
– will help agency monitor process
effectiveness and find reasons and ways for
enhancement.
– BPP could be measured at process steps
(tasks) level or at participant's level in order
to quantify process performance analysis.
– Organizations that have performance
management in place are more ready to
transform to learning org.
Organizational e-Readiness
2-Business Process
• 2.4 Automation
– Two key criteria to be assessed
• Number of automated steps
• Ability to provide and exchange data
electronically.
Organizational e-Readiness
3-IT infrastructure and Management
ICT
Management
Applicatons
Skills
Infrastructres
DBMS
1.
Infrastructure
2.
DBMS
3.
Applications
4.
ICT Management
5.
Technical skills

3.1 Infrastructure
◦ Aims at 24x7 Availability





Hardware
Communication Network
Intranet ، Internet ، Extranet
Capacity Management
ICT Facility
 Power
 ACs

3.2 DBMS
◦ Depends on firm role at national / regional level
◦ Firm need to have electronic information to share
and exchange with stakeholders.







Data coding and classification
Minimal Redundancy
Data Dictionary
Data exchange protocols
compatibility
Licenses
Data security and backup

3.3 Applications
◦ We mean Business applications (ready and tailor
made)
◦ Applications replaced ordinary paper based
business processes
◦ Applications contains business process and controls

3.4 Applications
◦
◦
◦
◦
Application
Application
Application
Application
functional maturity
maintainability
Integration ability
security

3.5 ICT Management
◦ E-transformation requires a matured ICT
management due to the expanding role of ICT.







Effectiveness
Efficiency
Confidentiality
Integrity
Availability
Reliability
Compliancy

3.5 ICT Management effectiveness:
1. Structure(Internal and external):
 Level of authority and position in org. Authority and decision
making
 Internal structure
 Segregation of Duties
 Completeness of quality function
2. ICT processes effectiveness.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Policies and procedures
Documentation (job description)
Roles and responsibilities
Knowledge sharing and management
Information services maturity
1.
2.
3.
Product service realization
Quality
Help disk and

3.5 ICT Management effectiveness:
3. Technical skills
 many and vary according to the following factors:




Level of maturity of agency's ICT function.
Agency's e-government strategic plan.
The role of outsourcing versus in-house team members.
Available approaches for agency to gain new skills and
capabilities.

ICT functions should develop capabilities in
the following key skills:
◦ Capable operations staff for systems and networks
◦ Capable database administration.
◦ Programming and software development
methodologies
◦ Business analysis and processes reengineering
◦ Software engineering and integration
◦ Security specialist
◦ ICT Quality specialist
◦ Project management skills

So Far…
◦ strategy readiness to ensure being on the right
direction
◦ Business process readiness to ensure doing the
right things to achieve goals.
◦ Technology readiness to enable the business.

Change is always a real challenge:
◦
◦
◦
◦
Bureaucracy.
Are stakeholders going to accept radical change.
Do they have the same concerns and interests.
They do have varies impacts and influences.

Ability to change readiness criteria:
◦
◦
◦
◦
Leadership
Human resource alignment
Effective communication
Risk Management

4.1 leadership
◦ Leadership was classified as a barrier to e-trans
◦ Transformational leadership elements are included
 Awareness of e-trans concepts and benefits.
 Embracement of e-trans
 Leadership skills

4.2 Human resources alignment
◦ Considered an extension to strategy readiness
 Reduce resistance
 Protect e-Transformation investment

4.2 HR alignment criteria includes the
following:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Dissemination of strategic objectives
Job descriptions and Responsibilities
Policies to attract and retain skilled workers
HR Motivation
HR Performance Management
HR continuous development

4.2 Human resources alignment
◦ Realization of strategic objectives
 Strategy should be understood by workers at all levels
 Workers should know how they contribute to achieve
the strategy
 Workers should not left in vague

4.2 Human resources alignment
◦ Job description (roles and responsibilities)
 Organizations with clear roles and resp. are more
ready to transform to e-age
 Roles and responsibilities must be derived from Org
structure and
 This will facilitate changes mandated by reengineered
and automated business processed.
 Will also facilitate reassignment of authority,
empowerment..etc

HR Attraction and retention
◦ There is a need to deal with highly wanted workers
◦ Risk: training workers will make them drain out
◦ Must change HR policies to retain skilled workers.
◦ HR Motivation
 Unmotivated workers can not afford change
 Need for national level motivation system
 Allgin workers personal ambitions with e-trans
programs objectives
 Rewards (personal, organizational and leader)

HR Performance Management




Organization performance depends on HR
HR performance data will help in strategic planning
Monitoring e-trans initiative on HR Performance
This will help restructuring HR to the optimum

HR Development polices and procedures
◦ E-transformation will mandate new skills
◦ E-transformation plans need to be integrated to
other HR development plan
◦ Successive Management to sustain success ad
continuity.

4.3 Effective Communication
◦ "People in organizations typically spend over 75% of
their time in an interpersonal situation"
[Wertheim, 2007];
◦ Vertical and Horizontal communication:





Disseminate e-transformation awareness
Collaboration between stakeholders
Support Daily activities
Communication is essential part of business process
Replace conventional communication tools with new
automated and electronic ones.

4.4 Risk management maturity
◦ So many threats are threatening e-transformation
 Business process controls
 IT Security
◦ Will evaluate:
 Clear role of risk management
 Availability of policies and procedures
 Business continuity plans.)
◦ Result: more controlled environment while
transforming.



IT Security is considered as key barrier for etransformation
Even successful org. has too much to do to
secure its information.
IT threats:
◦
◦
◦
◦


Are so many
Diversified
Of high specialty
New threats are coming every day
IT security must be addressed at national level
IT security include many non technical roles

5.1 Top management realization
◦ Each org. has its own IT Security structure
◦ IT security is tightly related to informational model
◦ Top management is responsible and accountable
for IT security.
◦ High level steering committee should effectively
follow up IT security

5.2 Business department readiness
◦ Are departments heads and executives aware of
their role in IT security.
◦ Are they participating in data classification
◦ Evaluate access rights management
◦ IT security management structure:
 Shared responsibilities
 Decision making
 Independent audit.

5.3 ICT function readiness
◦ Must afford IT security criteria:
 Confidentiality
 Integrity
 Availability

Will evaluate:
◦ ICT awrareness about IT security concepts
◦ Current IT security practices (policies & procedures)
◦ Coordination level with other stakeholders.

5.3 ICT function readiness
◦ IT team skills:





Risk Assessment
Impact analysis
Countermeasures
Incident Management
Disaster Recovery
◦ Current IT security practices:
 Protective Countermeasures
 Corrective Countermeasures
 Best practices (ISO17799 , BS7799)
◦ Assets management
◦ Human resources security
◦ Physical and Environmental Security
Strategy Readiness
Well documented and communicated vision,
mission goals and objectives and KPIs.
Strategic
Planning
Organizational
Structure
Functions and
services
Performance
Management
•Organizational structure is documented
•Communicated and recognized
•Covers all activities including ICT
•Identify relationships and authorities
•Used effectively in HR
•Managed OR mechanism
•Clearly defined and strategically mapped internal
and external functions and services.
•Assigned responsibilities (ownership),
•level of automation
•integration with incentive system
Generic maturity stages
Informational
Model
Defined information architecture
Data requirements
Operational requirements
Business Process
Readiness
Documentation
Effectiveness
Performance
•Availability of a business process committee
•Availability of updated documentation
•Accessibility of documentation by agency staff
•Availability of Electronic workflow systems
•Integration of BPD to human resources
•Integration of BPD to automated systems.
•Clarity of process drivers, triggers and inputs
•Clarity of process roles and responsibilities
•Clarity of process exceptions handlings
•Clarity of process controls and related objectives
•Clarity of process outputs in various stages
•Level of adherence to process qualities
•level of support available at each stage
Common maturity levels should be used
Automation
•Percentage of automated tasks and steps
•Ability to integrate and exchange digital information
Technology
readiness
Hardware
Infrastructures
Databases
Application
ICT
Management
Technical skills
•Hardware
•Communication Network
•Facility with environmental and physical security
•Cleansed and well structured historical info
•Ability to share and transfer data to web content
• hardware Availability counter-measures:
•Data retention policies and backup systems
•Application maturity
•Application maintainability
•Application Integration ability
•Application security
•Organization structure
•ICT processes readiness- Policies & Standards
•Capable systems and network operations staff
•Capable database administration.
•Programming and development
•Business Analysis / processes reengineering
•Software engineering and integration
•Security specialist
•ICT Quality specialist
•Project management skills
Changeability
Readiness
•Awareness
•Embracement
•Leadership skills
Leadership
Human Resource
Alignment
Communication
•Dissemination of strategic objectives
•Job descriptions and Responsibilities
•Policies to attract and retain skilled workers
•HR Motivation
•HR Performance Management
•HR continuous development
•Effectiveness of Vertical and horizontal Comm.
Risk Management
•Responsibility for risks in organization
•Business continuity and disaster recover plans
ICT Security Readiness
Top management
realization & adoption
Department level
readiness
Security Technical
readiness
•Awareness of leadership role in security
•existing strategic security management
•Security enforcement in strategy components
•Executives' realization of key security roles.
•Alignment of security with business
•Coordination with technology function (dept)
•Realization of technical security requirements
•Existing level of security practices
•Coordination with other departments

This is a call for establishing a research
center for organizational e-readiness at
national and regional levels.

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