World`s oldest crop

Report
The ancestral state
World’s oldest crop
Native to Middle East
Ancestral form is
•winter habit
•2-row
•hulled
2-row vs. 6-row
1 gene/30,000 genes
Winter
vs.
Spring
What is the difference between winter and spring barley, and what the
*%^&(+ is a facultative barley?
The three growth habit classes of barley are winter, facultative and spring. A
winter barley is planted in late fall and is harvested the following summer. A
spring barley is planted in the spring and harvested the same summer. If you
plant a winter barley in spring, it will not flower, or it will flower too late. If
you plant a spring barley in the fall, it will (in many temperate environments)
die from low temperature injury. A facultative barley can be planted in the
spring or the fall, and it is cold-tolerant. There are three principal
physiological traits involved: vernalization sensitivity, photoperiod sensitivity,
and low temperature tolerance. Vernalization sensitivity means the plant needs
exposure to low temperature before it can flower. Winter barleys are
vernalization-sensitive whereas facultative and spring types are not.
Photoperiod sensitivity means the plant will not flower until the day length
reaches a critical threshold. Many winter barleys, most facultative barleys, and
few spring barleys are sensitive to short days. Low temperature tolerance is an
induced trait. Winter and facultative barleys are more cold tolerant than
spring barleys. Since the traits are controlled by different genes our bets are
on photoperiod-sensitive, cold-tolerant facultative varieties.
http://barleyworld.org/FAQ_sheet.php
Hulled vs. Hull-less
The headache of pearls
Malt vs. Feed
Why some varieties are better for making beer than others
•Barley malt is the perfect combination of starch, enzymes,
Malt
Feed
Forage
flavors, and aromas for brewing, distilling, baked goods, cereals
and confections. There are many types of barley malt – from light
to dark – but all are variations on two principal themes:
germination and kilning. Different end-uses require different
malt quality specifications. Some of the principal characteristics
used to define malting quality are protein (low, moderate, or
high), malt extract (high), enzyme activity (moderate to high),
and beta glucan (low).
•Feed barley is used as food for animals. Varieties also differ in
their feeding properties but unfortunately feed barley is simply
sold by the ton. Feed barley prices are often so low that farmers
grow other crops - if they can do so. As a consequence, barley’s
adaptability to extreme climates makes it an important feed
grain only in areas where it is unprofitable to grow (or import)
maize.
•Hooded barley is a unique type of feed barley that has hoods,
rather than awns. These types are usually cut green for hay or
silage. The lack of awns allows for easy chewing by the animals.
A rule of thumb is that good malt barley is good feed barley,
but not the reverse. In general, malt barley commands a
premium over feed barley, but yield less.
Many genes determine malting and feed quality; two genes
determine the hooded trait.
http://barleyworld.org/FAQ_sheet.php
Malting barley variety development
Grain to Glass 11 – 13 years
Time frame
(yrs)
Activity
2-3
Breeding and selection; initial
agronomic assessment
•Segregating generations
•Doubled haploid populations
3-4
Preliminary to advanced agronomic
testing and micro-malting of samples
from multiple environments
Amount of seed required for Amounts of seed
available and scale
one malting quality
assessment
0
0g – 1 kg for breeding
program
200 grams
1 kg – 20 kg for breeding
and extension programs
20 kg –100 kg for
3
AMBA Pilot Scale Test must be rated
satisfactory in 2/3 years of testing
7 kilograms/
location
2 locations
AMBA Plant Scale malting and brewing trials
3 must be rated satisfactory in 3/3 brewing trials
800
metric tons
breeding and extension
programs. Initiate largescale increase of pure seed
for commercial scale quality
assessment and variety
release
Large volumes for onfarm testing and
commercial scale
malting and brewing
Measure the traits that matter
Molecular breedin
Measure meaningful genetic diversity
Why Barley?
•Diversify
•New products
•Rotation
•Whole grains in a complete diet
•Full spectrum local supply
•We have very productive areas for growing barley
Raising barley – from seed to seed
•
Variety choice
•
Planting
•
Management
•
Harvest
•
Storage
•
End uses
Varieties
•Self-pollinated
•Breed true
•Variation due to limited crosspollination, mixture, mutation,
breeding method
•Growth habit
•Winter, spring, facultative
•Seed source
•Certified, farmer-farmer, saved
•Ownership
•Public, PVP, licensed, patented
Planting
•How
•Broadcast, drill
•Seedbed preparation
•Tillage, minimum-tillage, no-tillage
•Seeding rate
•Lbs/acre; seeds/square foot
•Seeding date
•Growth habit
•Don’t spring-plant a winter
•Diseases
•Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus is a
problem in early-seeded winters
Management and who to contact at OSU
Mike Flowers (CSS Extension)
Weeds: Andrew Hulting (CSS Extension)
• Companion Crops
• Herbicides
• Tillage
• Mulches
Diseases: Chris Mundt (BPP)
•Yield and quality loss
•Stripe rust
•Contamination
•Smut
•Health hazards
•Ergot
•Fusarium Head Blight
•Genetic resistance
•Fungicides
Insects: Sujaya Rao (CSS)
•Cereal Leaf Beetle
Nutrition:John Hart, Dan Sullivan (CSS)
•N,P, K, +, +,+
Harvest
Combine
• Plot
• Small
• Standard
Cutting
•Hand tools
•Mowers
•Binders
Threshing
•Abrasion
•Mechanical threshers
Cleaning
•De-hulling
•Removing chaff
•Removing other seeds
Storage
•Moisture
•Insects
•Rodents
•Fungi
Marketing
Protein, seed weight/size (test weight,
plump/thin)
•
•
•
•
Malt (extract, enzymes),
Food (beta glucan),
Feed (protein, test weight),
Forage (protein, fiber)
Bringing it all home to Oregon
Maja. Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR 2010
Growth habit, end-use and disease resistance are key
considerations for making management decisions and
income projections
Maja. Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR 2010
Growth habit: winter, facultative, and spring
Highest yields with winter or facultative barley
Seeded mid-October and harvested in early July
At least 6,000 lbs per acre and test weights > 50 lbs./bu
Winter breeding nursery.
CBARC. Pendleton, OR
2009
Late spring (March/April) plantings of barley will likely
yield less than fall plantings and will require irrigation to
achieve maximum yield
Spring breeding nursery. Hyslop Farm, Lewisburg, OR 2010
Facultative varieties: plant any time
Late winter/early spring (~ February) seeding of winter,
facultative, or spring varieties is an option for some
growers
Spring breeding nursery (foreground) and winter breeding
nursery (background). Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR 2010
Principal end-uses are feed, food, forage, and malt
Rogue ale hour. OR 2010
Malting varieties must meet specific quality criteria for
malting and brewing
The maltster and brewer will specify which variety (ies)
will be contracted
Feeders will typically specify test-weight
The food barley market is developing
The driver is Beta glucan = soluble dietary fiber
Key differentiators are
hulled vs. naked
waxy vs. normal starch
The hull is removed by genetics, de-hulling, pearling, or
milling
Forage varieties are hooded – no awns
Harvested for hay, green chop, silage
Grazed
Grain
The barley form of stripe rust can be very severe in the
Willamette Valley: complete crop loss
Scald: a matter of degree
BYDV can be a problem in early fall plantings
Stripe rust on susceptible varieties.
Hyslop Farm. Lewisburg, OR Any year
Choose adapted varieties
Barleyworld.org
541-737-5878
[email protected]
Variety recommendations
Winter
Feed – Strider, Alba (2012)
Food – Streaker (2012), WinCrisp (2013)
Forage – Verdant (2011)
Malting – Endeavor (2-row), Maja (6-row; facultative)
Spring
2-row

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