跨越國中小文法教學的鴻溝(第三項)4ppt印一頁

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國中小課程銜接面面觀:
跨越文法教學鴻溝
李櫻
12/13/2012
ㄧ、前言
• 國內英語文法教學的問題:
– 國中、高中階段學習過程中投入大量時間和心
力學習文法,但結果卻是成效不彰
• 家長對國小文法教學的兩極化看法:
– 溝通式教學應該以培養溝通能力為主
– 文法的正確與否並非主要焦點
– 應及早加強文法教學、熟習文法規則,以便與
國中英語順利銜接
– 國小教師多認為已經學生已經學過許多基本句
型
– 國中教師卻普遍覺得:
國小實施英語教學以來,學生的英語語法能
力並未見有效提昇
二、國中文法教學成功了嗎?
以基測疑義試題為例
[例一] 時式在篇章中的使用
—91學年度第一次國中基本學測試題(16-18題)
Ted sat next to me when we were in elementary school.
He had serious problems in communicating with people.
One always had to guess what he was saying. Besides, most
of my classmates did not like to be with him because his
hands and shirts were always dirty. I __(16)__ let him know
the importance of being clean by telling him several times
a day to wash his hands. But he just could not understand.
• 16. (A) tried to (B) am trying to (C) have tried to (D) will try to
One day, our teacher Miss Hsieh walked up to Ted.
Without saying anything, she took Ted to the washroom.
Slowly, Miss Hsieh washed his hands and told him that he
should keep himself clean. She _17_ (did/was doing/has
done/was going to do) that every day for one month. Finally,
Ted understood.
Miss Hsieh’s love has given me a good example to follow
when I _ (18)_ my job. I always remember to teach my
students by showing them the right ways to do things. And
most important of all, I always remember to give them more
time to learn and to grow up.
• 17. (A) did (B) was doing (C) has done (D) was going to do
• 18. (A) did (B) am doing (C) have done (D) am going to do
• 選項
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
16.
通過率
鑑別度
17.
通過率
鑑別度
18.
通過率
鑑別度
A
B
C
D
*32.69
0.30
18.09
-0.28
35.84
0.10
13.27
-0.24
*17.00
0.05
22.04
-0.21
44.53
0.31
16.32
-0.23
18.03
-0.01
*31.97
0.26
29.11
-0.16
20.78
-0.11
• [例二] “…for thirty minutes”
• …When we finished talking, I found my sister was gone! I
_____ her name loudly and looked for her for thirty minutes.
Everyone was looking at me…
• (A) have called
• (C) called
(B) will call
(D) was calling
• Q’s:
• 1. 無正解, 應為 had called
• 2. 課本內容未提及簡單過去式結尾可加“for+ㄧ段時間”,
但清楚寫到現在完成式可加“for+ㄧ段時間”,故有超出
範圍之嫌
[例三] “逗”不“逗”有甚麼差別?
—93學年度第二次國中基本學測試題(第25題)
Two months later their team was playing an important
game. The new student, Linda, kept making good
shots. Karen felt unhappy. She wanted people to
know 25 ; she wanted to be noticed. So she tried
very hard to score baskets.
25. (A) she was Linda’s best friend
(B) she could make good shots too
(C) she could follow the game rules
(D) she was paid well to play the game
[例四] 感官動詞後接的V形式
—93學年度第二次國中基本學測試題(第16題)
Cindy cried out when she saw a motorcycle _____
into her cat.
(A) bump (B) bumped (C) to bump (D) has bumped
Q’s:1. motorcycle是「物」,應用過去分詞
2. saw 是see的過去式,(B) bumped不行嗎?
[例五]關係代名詞的限制—何謂「正統文法」?
• 96年國中基測,國中老師針對13題提出如下的質
疑:
• 13. In my family, my sister is the only person who
_____ chocolate.
• My sister is the only person who…這裡的關
係代名詞…不應該用who而應該用that…在正統文
法中…先行詞之前若有the only、序數等字眼,
其關代都應該用“that”。此題的錯誤不影響學
生作答…但出題老師應給學生正確觀念,否則第
二次基測若考出同樣文法,是否該送分?
• 心測中心的答覆:
• 1.考題經過外籍老師審題;
• 2. 經查多本文法書,並諮詢本國籍與外籍
教授,確定英文文法規則並不存在上述
老師所述之規則;
• 3. 檢索英語語料庫,發現類似情況下使用
who的頻率甚高;
• 4. 基測試題一定會考慮實際語用,絕不會
用不自然的語言或空穴來風之教條式文
法為難學生,請老師不必擔心。
三、英語文法教學的省思
• 1.文法是甚麼?
• 文法用來規範我們如何造出合文法的句子?
• 文法規則是約定俗成的,沒有道理可言?
• 文法是讓我們可以表情達意、使語言溝通更連貫
順暢的語用策略
• 許多文法規則其實是有道理、可以理解的
A. 約定俗成、看不出道理的文法規則:
• 「主詞是第三人稱單數,動詞現在式要加-s」
• 「BE動詞形式隨著主詞不同而變化:第一人稱單
數現在式為I am、第二人稱為you are、第三人稱
為he is/she is」
• 「規則動詞過去式和過去分詞要加-ed」
• 「不規則動詞do的過去式是did,過去分詞是done」
B. 下列是「沒有道理可解釋」的文法嗎?
句中主詞有兩個名詞A和B用連接詞連接時:
• Both A and B …,動詞用複數型
• Either A or B …, neither A nor B …
依據B決定動詞單複數
• A as well as B…, A no less than B…
則依據A決定動詞單複數
• 英文中真的有下列文法規則嗎?
• How old are you? = What’s your age?
• I’m 13. = I’m 13 years old. = I’m 13 years of
age. =I’m a 13-year-old girl.
先行詞是the only或序數(the first/second
等),關代只能用that
• 2. 誰的語法?
關於語言的一些事實:
– 語言的多元性
– 語言的變異性:英語的歷史演變
– 「文法權威」和「經典名著」的迷思
• Forget me not.
• All that glitters is not gold.
• Had I known this, I would have told you.
• John is taller than I/me.
• Everyone should bring his/their books to class.
• Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
• Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought
forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in
Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all
men are created equal…
四、國中小文法教學銜接:
以溝通為本的文法教學
• 國小階段的重要課題:
• 如何在溝通互動的教學活動中,將句法學
習有效融入?
• 如何利用教學的互動情境強化句法的學習,
揚棄教條式的規範,透過有意義的語言溝
通設計,使學生得以將基本句法真正內化
(internalize),並應用在聽、說、讀、寫
的活動中?
國小句型教學省思(1)
• 「完整句子」的迷思:
句型的呈現是否必須是完整的句子?
例一: What’s this? It’s a book.
例二: What color is it? It’s red.
Is it red?
Yes, it is.
例三: What do you do on Saturday?
I go swimming on Saturday.
例四: When do you go swimming?
I go swimming on Saturday.
有效應用詞組的重要性:
1. 語用溝通功能的考量
– 是否僅有完整的句子才是「文法正確」的句子?
– 在真實語言情境中,完整句子的使用頻率為何?
是否自然通順?
– 非完整句的「詞組」使用是否有「不合文法」
的疑慮?
2. 句法結構的考量
– 單字之上是否即為完整句子?
– 句法結構除「線列順序」之外,也有「層次結
構」
– 「詞組」的概念在現行的句法教學活動中如何
呈現?
3. 語言教學實效的觀點
– 使用非完整句的「詞組」是否會助長「不合文
法」的句子?
– 「詞組」的應用可否增強句型的學習?
溝通互動中的文法結構呈現舉例
例一:名詞組(NP)的結構及冠詞用法
單字:
book
名詞組:
a book, a good book,
the book, the green book
What’s this?
A book. It’s a book
• A book?
Yes, a book. / No, a pencil.
• What do you see? A book.
句型: This is a book.
a red book.
a good book.
• 單字: red
• What color (is this)? Red.
• A red book?
Yes, a red book.
No, a green book.
• (You want) the red book? Yes, the red book.
No, the green book.
• What color is this? Red.
It’s red.
例二:There is / are…句型
There’s a flower in the garden. /
 There’re many flowers in the garden.
• A flower.  There’s a flower.
Where? --In the garden.
 There’s a flower in the garden.
• Many flowers.  There’re many flowers.
Where?
 There’re many flowers in the garden.
In the garden: Where is Mom?
In the garden.
She is in the garden.
建立「詞組結構」(constituency)概念:
善用詞組和短語做為練習和為應對的用語,
藉以逐漸建構英語句法的層次結構概念。
利用舊的詞組和句型,帶出新的單字詞彙。
利用新的句型結構,複習舊的單字詞語。
有效統合新舊句型、語詞,融入有意義的溝
通活動,反覆練習,以便真正掌握新舊句型
在不同語境上下文中的用法。
國小句型教學省思(2)
• 「句型練習」的落實--聽說與朗讀活動的
結合
– (1)語音練習和句型學習是否各自獨立?
– (2)課文或故事的聆聽如何強化句法結構概念?
– (3)朗讀活動如何增進句法結構的掌握?
句法「層次結構」在語調、節奏、斷句上的
表現:
朗讀範例一:
Close your eyes and open your ears.
It’s time for a story.
No, I’m not going to read it to you;
you will listen to it on a CD, MP3, or cassette.
Sound like a great idea?
Well, in today’s world, anything is possible.
• 朗讀範例二:
• The Wishing Well
• A mouse once found a wishing well.
• “Now all of my wishes can come true!” she
cried.
• She threw a penny into the well and made a
wish. “OUCH!” said the wishing well.
• The next day the mouse came back to the well.
She threw a penny into the well and made a
wish. “OUCH!” said the well.
•
• The next day the mouse came back again. She
threw a penny into the well. “I wish this well
would not say ouch,” she said.
• “OUCH!” said the well. “That hurts.”
從聆聽活動中,注意語句的斷句、停頓、語調
等語音訊息,強化詞組結構概念。
從語調訊息中掌握語句的開始、結束,以及各
詞組單位之間的關係。
從反覆聆聽和朗讀活動中,熟習句型結構,並
應用在課堂問答和溝通活動中。
國中文法教學省思
• 當代語法描述之考量要素:
• “3C”–
corpus :語料庫檢視句型的使用頻率
context :上下文情境顯示句型的用法
communication:語法為表情達意的溝通
策略
• Context的重要:(一)再談過去式與現在完成式
• I went to school yesterday.
(last month, last week, two years ago, in 1995等時間副
詞一定出現在過去式的句子中嗎?)
Cf. Ted sat next to me when we were in elementary
school. He had serious problems in
communicating with people. One always had to
guess what he was saying. Besides, most of my
classmates did not like to be with him because his
hands and shirts were always dirty. I tried to let
him know the importance of being clean by telling
him several times a day to wash his hands. But he
just could not understand
Corpus的驗證:「活用圖解英文法」
• the + 形容詞
• = 1. 複數普通名詞(表示有此屬性的人)??
•
2. 抽象名詞 (作主詞時,用單數動詞)??
•
•
The rich (= Rich people) are not always
happy than the poor. (= poor people)
The beautiful (= Beauty) lives forever.
•
•
•
the true (= truth) 真
the kind (= kindness) 善
the beautiful (= beauty) 美
• BNC 語料檢視結果:
• 最常用來指某國籍的人,如the British,
the Irish
• the+ adj. 後面有可能跟單數和複數的動詞
– These are not cases where the accused has caused
death
– On these canvases, the visible is no longer an
opening but something…
– this being the knowledge which the dominant has
to suppress in order to rule…
– …the true can be separated from the false.
– …the true is really false
• Communication: 句型的語意和語用考量
等句的迷思:
– John loves Mary = Mary is loved by John. ???
– We saw John leave the room. =John was seen to leave the
room by us. ???
– He is a kind man. = He is a man of kindness. ???
– I didn’t leave until he came.
=Not until he came did I leave.
=It was not until he came that I left.???
Cf.
他打破茶杯了/他把茶杯打破了
茶杯被他打破了/茶杯被打破了/茶杯打破了/茶杯破了
• 「下列時式均可用以表示未來」?
–功能有無差異?
–
–
–
–
–
The train is leaving for Taipei.
The train will leave for Taipei.
The train is going to leave for Taipei.
The train is to leave for Taipei.
The train leaves for Taipei at six-thirty.
–
–
–
–
?It rains tomorrow.
She will have a baby./She is having a baby.
You will fall./You’re going to fall.
If you eat any more of the cake, you will die/you die.
• 語意和溝通考量可以減輕多少句法學習的負擔?
– 名詞前的形容詞排列順序
• A large national monument
• ?A national large monument
• A large African elephant
• ?An African large elephant
• A dumb four-legged animal
• ?A four-legged dumb animal
• A good bird-dog
• *A bird good dog
how bighow oldwhat colorwhere from
what it is made of
• 這個順序是固定的文法規則嗎?
決定形容詞順序的因素:
形容詞和名詞之語意關聯程度
• 這些類別的順序必須逐一記憶嗎?
我們會同時使用許多形容詞來修飾一個名詞
嗎?
We speak/write to communicate,
not to confuse!
• 形式的緊密關聯反映語意的緊密關聯:
– I can’t hear her.
– I’ve never heard of her.
She swam the channel.
She swam across the channel.
– He rode the horse.
– He rode on the horse.
She escaped him.
She escaped from him.
– She approached the house.
– She moved toward the house.
Givon (1993: 112)-(受詞受影響的程度有所區分)
五、結論與建議
1. 文法能力 =\= 文法分析能力
文法教學 =\= 文法結構分析教學或句型代換練習
2. 學習文法結構,必須兼顧語句形式和語意及語用
功能
3. 口說語言中的停頓和語調節奏,藏有許多文法線
索
4. 文法結構的言談語用功能在單句中不易顯現,必
須在足夠的上下文情境中才能充分顯示
5. 朗誦、閱讀過程中對語句和篇章內容的理解,即
牽涉文法 知識的掌握、運用和複習
6. 過多「等句」或「同義語詞」的學習,不但徒
增學習負擔,而且極可能破壞語感,誤以為所
有等句之 語用功能亦為相等。
7. 語法教學宜從理解開始,並引導學生根據已知
的語法知識,在文章中指認出不熟悉的新句型,
掌握該句型有何特殊意義,以及其在形式和功
能上和已知的舊句型有何差異。
8.大量語料的輸入,有利於掌握「常用、無標句
型」為何,並進一步認識「特殊、有標句型」
的特殊意義。
9. 提供更多含有新句型的文章或情境,進一步理
解句意,或給予在上下文中填寫語詞、造句等
練習。
10. 測驗評量盡量避免機械式的單題、缺乏情境
語意
線索的考題。
感謝聆聽
祝各位
教學愉快、成功!

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