MORPHEME STUDIES AND SCOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ROCÍO RIVERA NANCY CABA INÉS ECHEVERRÍA MELIDA BONILLA SANDRA REYES Krashen’s “monitor model” • The acquisition-learning hypothesis • The monitor hypothesis • The natural order hypothesis • The input hypothesis • The affective filter hypothesis Krashen’s “monitor model” • The acquisition-learning hypothesis (1) – Acquisition: we acquire L2 knowledge as we are exposed to samples of the L2 which we understand with no conscious attention to language form. It is a subconscious and intuitive process. – Learning: we learn the L2 via a conscious process of study and attention to form and rule learning. IL: Development Sequences, SLA Very productive area of inquiry in SLA Methodological variations: Longitudinal / diachronic (like Brown): small number of subjects studied over a period of time; v. cross-sectional / synchronic (like de Villiers & de Villiers): large number of subjects at a specific time. 5 ROGER BROWN 14 GRAMMATICAL MORPHEME Brown’s (1973) five-year longitudinal case study of three children. the children’s developed at rates, speech different Brown found that their orders of acquisition of fourteen morphemes were surprisingly consistent. LONGITUDINAL STUDY This investigation is where a small group of subjects is studied over a period of time . CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY Investigates a large group of subjects at one point in time. Dulay and Burt (1973,1974,1975) The study by Dulay and Burt (1973), revealed how six- to eight-year-old children (151 subjects, L1 Spanish) had acquired eight major English grammatical morphemes. The acquisition order obtained in that study. They found that plural – s was acquired first, and the possessive -’s mastered last. Acquiring English ELICITATION Means…. - A PROCESS IN WHICH A STIMULUS PROVOQUES AN ANSWER - IT CAN BE INNATE - TO MAKE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING - TO SPECT SOMETHING HAPPENS ELICITATION TECHNIQUES BRAINSTORMING WORKSHOPS INTERVIEWING SURVEYS DOCUMENTATION REVIEW OBSERVATION RESEARCHERS Dulay and Burt (1974) Bilingual Syntax Measure Chinese and Spanish Children BILINGUAL SYNTAX MEASURE BSM is an individually administered instrument used to identify a student’s mastery of basic oral syntactic structures in English, Spanish, or both languages. The BSM is suitable for diagnosis and placement, as well as for summative and formative evaluation. GROUP 1 CASE (NOMINATIVE ACCUSATIVE) WORD ORDER (in simple declarative sentences) GROUP LL SINGULAR COPULA SINGULAR AUXILIARY (‘s/is) (‘s/is) PLURAL AUXILIARY PROGRESSIVE (are) (-ing) GROUP LLL PAST IRREGULAR AUXILIARY POSSESSIVE (‘s) CONDITIONAL would LONG PLURAL (-es) THIRD PERSON SINGULAR (-s) GROUP IV PERFECT AUXILIARY PAST PARTICIPLE Have -en Kathleen M. Bailey Professor Professor Bailey served as a member of the worldwide USIA English Teaching Advisory Panel from 1992-95, and on the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Board of Directors from 1992-95 and again from 1997-2001. In 1998, she was President of the international TESOL organization. She was a member of the editorial board of TESOL Quarterly and currently serves on the editorial boards of (1) the Modern Language Journal; (2) the Asian Journal of English Language Teaching; (3) Language Teaching Research; and (4) the International Journal of Language Studies. Bailey et al. (1974) conducted a similar study with adults. She used the same elicitation method (Bilingual Syntax measure) to investigate the accuracy of production of the eight morphemes studied by Dulay and Burt (1973). The research was applied in 73 adult learners of English from different first-language backgrounds. The results were very similar to those reported in the case of children by Dulay and Burt (1973,1974) as shown in the following figure, (which is taken from Dulay et al., 1982, p. 210) : 73 17-55 years old Greek, Persian, Italian,Turkish, Thai Japanese, Chinese, Afghari, Hebrew, Arabic, Vietnamese English Cross- sectional Structured conversation Host Bilingual Syntax Measure (BSM) The authors developed an instrument for two purposes: 1) Toassess the English and Spanish oral proficiency of school age children, and 2) Determine English-Spanish language dominance in a brief and efficient manner. It was designed to measure second-language oral proficiency with respect to syntactic structures in English and Spanish. The authors chose syntax as the measure of proficiency because it is more stable across dialects than vocabulary, pronunciation, or pragmatics. The Bilingual Syntax Measure (Burt, Dulay, and Hernandez 1973) was administered to 73 adult learners of English as a L2 Language to investigate accuracy of usage for elevenEnglish functors. It was found that there is a highly consistent order of relative difficulty in the use of the functors across different language backgrounds backgrounds, indicating that learners are experiencing intralanguage difficulties Also, the adult results agreed with those obtained by Dulay and Burt (1973) for 5 to 8 year old children learning English as a second language indicating that children and adults use common strategies and process linguistic data in fundamentally similar ways. • As a conclusion of this topic is if the results seem clear as far as child second –language learners are concerned, it does not necessarily follow that adult would also show the same order of acquisition. • After all, children might approach the task of SLL more like the learning of a first language than adults do. Also, the adult results agreed with those obtained by Dulay and Burt (1973) • for 5 to 8 years old children learning English as a second language, indicating that children and adults use common strategies and process linguistic data in fundamentally similar ways. NUMBER OF STUDIES WERE REPORTED: Systematic staged development could be found a number of syntatic dominans. SYNTATIC DOMINANS: The variaty of syntactic forms in which a request can be paraphrased and still be understood. The acquisition of negative structures in English as a second languague, was defined by several early studies: Raven, 1968 Milon, 1974 Adams, 1978 Ellis, 1994 And others… Similar stages were noted in the acquisition of German and English as a second language. In other words: THE ACQUISITION OF NEGATIVES IN ENGLISH BY SECOND LANGUGE LEARNERS IS NOT DISSIMILAR OF THAT OF CHILDREN ACQUIRING ENGLISH AS THEIR FIRST LANGUAGE. The acquisition of other syntatic structures such as: Interrogatives and relatives clauses are exhibited in the uniform patterns of acquisition. In the uniform patterns of acquisiton, the process is not in a linear way, it is more like a zigzag. All the stages followed by second language learners, and the comprehension in: other areas of syntax show corresponding similarities, that children learn in their first language. MATCHING INTERVENTION TO SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) ACQUISITION STAGES GOALS: Preproduction VISUAL/WRITTEN RESPONSES (First 3 months of L2 Exposure) • Drawing/painting STUDENT • Graphic designs CHARACTERISTICS • Copying • Silent period • Focusing on comprehension GOALS: GOALS: PHYSICAL RESPONSES ORAL RESPONSES • Pointing • Yes-no responses in English • Circling, underlining • One-word answers • Choosing among items • Matching objects/pictures Stage 1 Stage 2 Early Production (3-6 months) STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS • focusing on comprehension • Using 1-3 word phrases • May be using routines/ formulas (e.g. “give me five”) GOALS: ORAL RESPONSES • 1-3 word responses • Naming/labeling items • Choral responses • Answering questions: either/or, who/what/where, sentence completion GOALS: VISUAL/WRITTEN RESPONSES • Drawing/painting, graphic designs • Copying • Grouping and labeling • Simple responses GOALS: PHYSICAL RESPONSES • Pointing • Selecting • Matching • Construction • Mime/acting out responses Stage 3 Speech Emergence (6 months–2 years) STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS Increased comprehension • Using simple sentences • Expanding vocabulary • Continued grammatical errors GOALS: ORAL RESPONSES • Recalling • Telling/retelling • Describing/explaining • Comparing • Sequencing • Carrying on dialogues GOALS: VISUAL/WRITTEN RESPONSES Written Responses • Drawing, painting, graphics GOALS: PHYSICAL RESPONSES Demonstrating • Creating/constructing • Role-playing/acting • Cooperative group tasks Stage 4 Speech Emergence (2 or 3years) STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS Improved comprehension • Adequate face-to-face conversational proficiency • More extensive vocabulary • Few grammatical errors. GOALS: ORAL RESPONSES Predicting • Narrating • Describing/explaining • Summarizing • Giving opinions • Debating/defending GOALS: VISUAL/WRITTEN RESPONSES Creative writing (e.g., stories) • Essays, summaries • Drawing, painting, graphics • Comprehensible written tests GOALS: PHYSICAL RESPONSES Demonstrating • Creating/constructing • Role-playing • Cooperative group work • Videotaped presentations Systematic and independent Morphemes are acquired step by step Similar with FLA Conclusions Theories of inherent LA Patterns similar and different Acquisition Order for Grammatical Morphemes (Brown, 1973) Order Morpheme Example 1 Present Progressive I driving 2-3 Prepositions in, on 4 Plural balls 5 Irregular Past Tense broke, fell 6 Possessive Daddy's chair 7 Uncontractible Copula This is hot 8 Articles a, the 9 Regular past tense She walked 10 3rd person present tense, regular He works 11 3rd preson present tense, irregular She does 12 Uncontractible auxilliary Ross is winning 13 Contractible copula He's a clown 14 Contractible auxiliary She's drinking • Brown discovered that the order of morpheme acquisition did not depend on frequency of exposure (in parental speech). • Instead, Brown concluded that the morphemes were required in order of syntactic and semantic complexity.