Integrating mobiles in to development

Component 1:
Integrating mobiles in to
Mobile - Functions
1. Message - SMS in/out (With GPS)
2. Voice
3. $ transactions
4. Interactive - Web (WAP - primitive
web access, Mobile Browser - direct,
Apps - direct to service)
What is a mobile - Devices
Basic (dumb)
Feature Internet
250 m Nokia 110
65 m Nokia 5130
What is a mobile - Devices
Smart (touch)
100x more powerful than average satellite
Mobiles - Audiences
How interact?
1 to 1
1 to many
Many to many
M4D Development
Off the shelf better than custom
Open source better than proprietary
Mobiles - 6 Lessons learned
1. Policy (Need an enabling environment)
2. Start with the objective, not the technology
3. Collaborate - Don't recreate the wheel
4. Plan for sustainability
5. Integrate. Solution = mobile +......
6. Green tree - best practices
Component 2:
Understanding the
Mobile Ecosystem
What are the different elements
of the mobile ecosystem?
Policy &
• Mobile growth can be stifled, impacting affordability, network coverage and speed, competition, and freedom of expression
• Ex. Myanmar: telecommunications industry was historically controlled entirely by a government-owned provider, resulting in an extremely low mobile
penetration rate. In 2013 two foreign operators were licensed, who will invest in 15K network towers to expand mobile access by 50%
• Mobile network operators (MNOs) must build cell towers, along with back-end systems needed to support the towers, plus agent and
distribution networks so that people are able to buy SIM cards and airtime top up
• TV White Space (TVWS) is a new tool used to repurpose white space into WiFi networks that provide mobile broadband access
without the need for 3G or 4G, relieving overloaded networks. Ex. Philippines, USAID’s Ecosystems Improved for Sustainable Fisheries
(ECOFISH) Project uses TVWS to connect remote fishing communities to the internet
• Mobile phone and SIM card access is increasing thanks to excess production and second hand markets
• Cost of mobile devices and SIM cards is decreasing
• Each phone is unique!
• Platform: operating system under which other software operates
• Framework: software tools that enable multiple uses and customization (ex. MOTECH, a suite of mHealth applications)
• Application: individual programs designed for a specific purpose
What are the different elements
of the mobile ecosystem?
Content &
• Whether the individual knows what mobile phones can do
• What content or services exist
• What value those content or services can have on peoples’ lives
• Cost of the device and access to a specific mobile service, which may require standard usage fees, service fees,
and costs associated with charging the device
• An individual’s skills and capacity to use a mobile phone and specific mobile service
• Influencing factors include language literacy, numeracy, and digital literacy, as well as the capability to physically
use the device (i.e. adequate eyesight)
• Social or cultural norms that impact access to mobile devices or services
• Ex. Gender restrictions on owning a mobile phone
• Trust and confidence in the data security and privacy of the mobile networks or services
What are the building blocks of mobile services?
• Service Quality
– functionality and usability
– Ex. CDMA vs GSM
• Sustainable Business Model
Who pays?
Pricing strategy structure?
Forms of payment?
How do users pay?
• Partnerships
– Service providers, MNOs, implementers, gov’t
ministries/agencies, donors, financial institutions, etc.
• Promotion
– ATL (mass marketing)
– BTL (personalized/ direct SMS and training)
What role can USAID play to
help strengthen the ecosystem?
Macro role:
• Encourage interoperability between existing mobile
• Advocate for regulatory change
• Negotiate with MNOs on issues such as short code access
and pricing
• Supporting MNOs to translate mobile phone menus into
local languages
USAID initiatives:
Scaling Innovations in Mobile Money (SIMM) Project (Phillipines)
Mobile Money Accelerator Program (MMAP) (Malawi)
GSMA mWomen Program: partnership with Australian Aid, GSMA and Visa
Alliance for Affordable Internet: partnership with, Omidyar Network,
DFID, and 30+ other governments, technology providers, civil society groups, and
Component 3: Project Design
A six-step process
3 Stages of Project Design
• Conceptual stage
Deliverable: Concept Paper
• Analytical stage
Deliverable: Project Appraisal Document
• Approval stage
Deliverable: Project Authorization
How to collect all the information to complete the
requisite analysis? 6 STEPS!
STEP 1: Identify potential roles for mobiles to
reinforce project goals
• Begin with project goals
• Brainstorm:
– Will mobile tech reinforce the goals?
• Engage Science & Tech Advisor and
experienced colleagues
• Work backwards: outcomes  mobile roles
• Note: Do NOT force mobiles into the project
STEP 2: Determine requirements
for using mobiles
• Potential uses of mobiles within development
– Info sharing, data collection, payments, facilitating
networks, community building, etc.
• Requisite functions
– Push, pull, storage, transaction, interactive, etc.
• Minimum delivery model
– SMS, voice, App, web, etc.
• Minimum device requirements
– Basic phone, smartphone, tablet, etc.
STEP 3: Collect data
to understand the landscape
• Two levels
– Macro-level
• Tech access
• Policy and regulatory environment
• Relevant mobile services and local technical capacity
– Micro-level
• Ownership and/or accessibility to a mobile phone, airtime
balance, commonly used communication tech,
demonstrations on how the phone is used, how often it is
turned on, etc.
STEP 4: Decide if use of mobiles in the project is
feasible and appropriate
• Analyze data from STEP 2 & 3
– Potential costs and benefits
– Procurement of necessary materials and equipment
– Data collection, dissemination, storage and
– Training requirements
– Monitoring
• Consider whether a broader M4D initiative is
STEP 5: Validate assumptions and preliminary
• Reliability of signal coverage & strength
• Individual handset ownership or handset accessibility
“as needed”
• Extent to which consumers have a basic understanding
of voice and text functionality
• Extent to which service fills an existing gap or meets a
need within the target group
• Extent to which users can access the service in a simple,
familiar manner
• Extent to which pricing is both affordable and
commercially viable and, if individual users pay, the
convenience of making payments
STEP 6: Integrate conclusions
into Concept Paper
Design with the user
Design for scale
Build for sustainability
Be data driven
Use open standards, open data, open source, and
open innovation
• Address privacy and security
Component 4:
Once preliminary approval for the project has
been obtained, the next step is to design and
issue a solicitation that captures the core
elements of the desired project and solicits
solutions that take full advantage of available
mobile services and the attributes of mobile
Core elements
• Strategic vision
• Knowledgeable of specific landscape
• Operationally descriptive
proposed tasks/illustrative activities
• Market research
• Mobile services and features
• Sustainability
• Training
 Concept
 Device
 Service
 Financial literacy/business concepts
Digital Financial Services (DFS)
USAID is including language in solicitations to
encourage implementing partners to incorporate
digital financial services (DFS) into their operations
and programming where feasible.
USAID expects to issue an Acquisition & Assistance
Policy Directive by September 2014 requiring all
implementing partners to use DFS to the extent
that their market and program footprints allow.
Techniques for developing
cost estimates
for integrating mobiles
into projects
• Requirements development and presentation
• Device provisioning and dissemination
• Market research
• Transaction/service fees
• Program design
• Monitoring and evaluation
• Participant identification and training

similar documents