IPv6 Survival Kit

Report
Academy Conference 2010
IPv6 Survival Kit
Dr. Jim Bergquist jbergquist@lcsc.org
Lakes Country Service Cooperative
August 2010
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IPv6 Survival Kit Session Goals
 Brief overview of IPv6 topics to build confidence in
configuring IPv6
 Explore ways in which IPv4 and IPv6 can coexist on
devices
 Use Packet Tracer to build, configure and troubleshoot
a simple IPv6 network
 Take away knowledge, tips and resources for
effectively adding IPv6 content to Discovery 4 and
Exploration 4
 Provide your students with fun and interesting facts
about this important protocol
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A big “Thank you” to …
 Michael McKeever, Computer Networking and Security
Instructor, Santa Rosa Junior College, Petaluma, CA
 Dallas Shiroma, Manager of Emerging Technologies,
Pacific Center for Advanced Technology Training,
Honolulu, HI
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Visualizing the
IPv6 Address
Space
… and other fun stuff
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Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space
128 bit addresses
2 128 is a very large number
 Assign one IPv6 address
per grain of sand
Fill here
 How many grains of
sand would be needed to
use all IPv6 addresses?
 Fill Earth-sized
containers with the sand
Sand
Grain 
Hollow
Earth-sized
container
Earth drawing credit: http://flickr.com/photos/ontdesign/
http://search.creativecommons.org/
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Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space
The filled Earth-sized containers would make 20 circles
around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto)
Our Solar
System
Blue dots are
Earth- sized
containers
Based on image from
public image gallery at
http://www.eso.org/
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Features Enhanced by IPv6
See Chapter 7 of Exploration, Accessing the WAN,
Chapter 6 of Discovery, Designing and Supporting Computer Networks
 Address autoconfiguration
Plug and Play networking with wide variety of devices
 Connectivity to roaming mobile devices
 Built-in Security – Security is easier
 Better reliability through multihoming hosts
 More efficient route aggregation
 Simpler packet header
 Many devices and apps already support IPv6
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IPv6 Address Format,
Types and Scopes
Just what we need to know
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IPv6 Address Format
 128 bits separated into eight blocks of 16 bits, as hex:
FC00:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A
 In each 16-bit block, leading zeros may be removed:
FC00:00D3:0000:0000:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A
FC00:D3:0:0:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
 Adjacent zeroes can be compressed (once):
FC00:D3::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
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Prefix Length, Allocation of Bits
 Example: 2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64
 Prefix length (number of network bits) is 64
 Same notation as CIDR in IPv4, no subnet masks
 16 subnet bits, (/49 to /64) given to a site – 65,535 LANs!
 Usually 64 bits are used for hosts in IPv6
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Types of IPv6 Addresses
 Unicast (one to one)
 Also:
 Multicast (one to many)
 Loopback (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1)
 Anycast (one to “nearest,” not widely used)
 No broadcasts in IPv6
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Unicast IPv6 Address Scopes
 Link-local addresses—only on single link, not routed
FE80 prefix
 Unique-local addresses—routed within private network
FC00 prefix
 Global unicast addresses—globally routable
2001 prefix currently being issued
64 bit host portion
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IPv6 Address
Assignment
Often, it does the work for us
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IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration
Static assignments are also possible
 Host automatically configures its own link-local
address
 With link-local address, a host discovers
connected routers to obtain a global prefix
 A host then builds its own global unicast address
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Stateless Autoconfiguration Process
Uses MAC Address
48 bit MAC Address
00
00
00
90
90
27
90
27
27
17
FF
FE
FF
FE
FC
0F
17
FC
17
FC
0F
0F
1 = Unique
000000U0
64 bits become part
of IPv6 address
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Where U=
U=1
02
90
27
FF
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0 = Not Unique
FE
17
FC
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0F
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Stateless Autoconfiguration
Only the network part of the address is supplied
in the ipv6 address command
Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
Router(config)#int fa0/1
Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr 2001:db8::/64 eui-64
Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Router(config-if)#no shut
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Stateless Autoconfiguration
Router’s fa0/1 interface generates its link-local
address and global unicast address
Router#sho ipv6 int bri
FastEthernet0/0
[administratively down/down]
FastEthernet0/1
[up/up]
FE80::201:42FF:FE44:3C02
2001:DB8::201:42FF:FE44:3C02
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Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing
 Hosts should have globally routable addresses created
with stateless autoconfiguration
Use 2001 prefix
Use /64 eui-64 to create them
 Serial links between routers should not use globally
routable addresses
Use FC00 prefix and static addressing
Use a prefix length /64
However, the prefix length could also be, for example, /112
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Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing
Static addresses between routers
Stateless autoconfiguration for hosts
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Commands for
Students to Compare
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Commands for Students to Compare
show ip interface brief
show ip route
show ip protocols
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show ipv6 interface brief
show ipv6 route
show ipv6 protocols
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Ping Command for IPv6
 Cisco routers, Packet Tracer routers and Packet
Tracer PCs use ping
 Windows XP uses ping6
 Packet Tracer PCs and Windows XP uses
ipv6config
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Configuring
IPv6 RIP
Differs slightly from RIP for IPv4
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Global Commands
Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing
(enable IPv6)
Router(config)#ipv6 router rip CIRCUS
(define a routing process called CIRCUS)
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Interface Commands- Auto Config
Router(config)#int fa0/0
Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable
Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr
2001:db8:2:3::/64 eui-64
Router(config-if)#ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable
Router(config-if)#no shut
The router is now configured with IPv6 RIP on fa0/0
Repeat for other involved interfaces
Ensure that the PCs are set for Auto Config in the Config Tab
The IPv4 network command is not used
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IPv4 and IPv6
Co-existence
Configuring Dual Stack
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Dual Stack Example
 Dual stack means configuring IPv4 and IPv6 on router
interfaces and PCs
 No special router commands needed
Works on any router that supports IPv6
 Main tasks:
Configure IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
on appropriate interfaces
Enable RIP and IPv6 RIP routing protocols (or OSPF and OSPFv3)
Note: The IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables are separate
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PC0 is a Dual Stack Host
 Ping from an IPv4 host to PC0
Destination
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PC0 is a Dual Stack Host
 Ping from an IPv6 host to PC0
Destination
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IPv4 Routing Table, Router1
Router1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, …
<output omitted>
Gateway of last resort is not set
R
192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.5.2, 00:00:04,
Serial0/0/1
C
192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
C
192.168.5.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
R
192.168.7.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.4.1, 00:00:05,
Serial0/0/0
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IPv6 Routing Table, Router1
Router1#sho ipv6 route
IPv6 Routing Table - 6 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP
C
2001:DB8:0:1::/64 [0/0]
FastEthernet0/0
L
2001:DB8:0:1:202:16FF:FE53:4601/128 [0/0]
::, FastEthernet0/0
R
2001:DB8:0:7::/64 [120/1]
via
FE80::2D0:BCFF:FEAB:6681, Serial0/0/0
C
FC00:0:0:1::/64 [0/0]
L
FC00:0:0:1::2/128 [0/0]
L
FF00::/8 [0/0]
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via ::,
via
via ::, Serial0/0/0
via ::, Serial0/0/0
via ::, Null0
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Configuring Dual Stack - Lab
 Open this lab with Packet Tracer 5.3
 Work with a neighbor on questions that arise
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ICMPv6 Packet
Type Numbers
You can look at packet details with Packet Tracer
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Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers
Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode
Click a packet to see type number
 Router Advertisement
(Neighbor Discovery)- 134
Specific to IPv6
Sent periodically to neighbors
 v6 Echo Request (ping)- 128
Compare with v4: Type 8
 v6 Echo Reply (ping)- 129
Type 134
Compare with v4: Type 0
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IPv6 Modeling in
Packet Tracer
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IPv6 Modeling in Packet Tracer
 In PT, click Help. In browser, click Modeling, Layer 3 IP
 Addressing topics
 Click Modeling, Routing
 IPv6 routing protocols
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Links to Additional
Information
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Additional Information
Portals, Forums, information sites
 “IPv6” (go to)
General IPv6 information, FAQ, links
 go6, (“The IPv6 portal”) (go to)
Upcoming events, blog, wiki, newsletter, member area
 IPv6 Task Force (“The IPv6 Portal”) (go to)
Introduction, news, pressroom, RSS, IPv6 Guide, and Portal
 The IPv6 Forum (go to)
Events, news, book recommendations, government news,
competitions, and an “IPv4 Exhaustion Counter”!
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Additional Information
Useful RFCs and lists
 IETF RFC repository (go to)
Find an RFC if you know its number
 networksorcery.com list of IPv6 RFCs (go to)
Excellent searchable list, including obsoleted RFCs
 Microsoft IPv6 implementation (go to)
RFCs used to implement IPv6 in Windows 2003 Server and XP
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Additional Information
 Introduction to IPv6 – Why IPv6? (go to)
Overview and In-depth sections
 Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to)
Excellent source for learning and troubleshooting
 List of RFCs for IPv6 (go to)
Useful for understanding Cisco IPv6 implementations
 A description of address types
 IPv6 Introduction video podcast by Darrel Root
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Related
Academy
Conference
Sessions
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Related Academy Conference
Session Material
 IPv6 and Packet Tracer, Dr. Jim Bergquist, 2009
 Getting Ready for IPv6, Dr. Ron Kovac and graduate
students, 2010
 IPv6 Survival Kit, Julian Carranza, 2010
 IPv6 Survival Kit, Michael McKeever, 2010
 Will include a lab for configuring NetLabs
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List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer
From 2009 conference
 Stateless Autoconfiguration
Stateless Autoconfig.pkt
Build an IPv6 EUI-64 Address.doc (A separate activity)
 IPv6 RIP
IPv6 RIP.pkt
 IPv6 OSPF
IPv6 OSPF CCNP Lab 8-1.pkt
 Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packets
Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet types.doc (and answers)
ICMPv4 ICMPv6 packets.pkt
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List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer
 Broken Networks
3 Router-IPv6 RIP-broken1.pkt
IPv6 RIP-broken2.pkt
 Unconfigured Network
Unconfigured.pkt
(Configured.pkt included for reference)
 Dual Stack
Dual stack-both IPv6 and IPv4.pkt
 Upgrade IOS for PT 2620XM to support IPv6
Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router.doc
Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router_ANSWERS.doc
No pkt file
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Obtaining Conference Materials
 Go to https://cisco.webex.com/meet/kalderso
 Click the Files tab
 Select the + to expand the “2009USAcadConf” folder, OR
 Select the + to expand the “2010USAcadConf” folder
(It will be posted after completion of all conferences)
 Download the files you want
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Obtaining Conference Materials
Another method, for 2010 materials
 Login to the 2010 Virtual Academy Conference
 In the Resource Room, session materials are posted
for each conference separately
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Topics Not
Covered Here …
… but check the additional resources I’ve referenced
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Topics Covered in Other Resources
See the links to resources and additional information
 Why IPv6, and why not NAT?
 Time frame for implementation
 Details of the parts of the address
 Special addresses
 Type and scope of addresses
 Details of packet header
 Neighbor discovery
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Topics Covered in Other Resources
See the links to resources and additional information
 IPv6 ACLs
 Security with IPv6
 Mobility with IPv6
 IPv4 to IPv6 migration: dual stack, tunneling, translation
 Current deployment status of IPv6
 Some IPv6 sites on internet
 Tunneling
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Q&A
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FAQ Area
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Where is IPv6 covered in Exploration?
 Network Fundamentals
6.3.6
 Routing Protocols and Concepts
1.1.3, 3.1.1, 5.1.1, 10.2.3, 11.1.1, 11.7.1
 LAN Switching and Wireless
no coverage
 Accessing the WAN
7.0.1, 7.3, 7.5.1
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Where is IPv6 covered in Discovery?
 Networking for Home and Small Businesses
No coverage
 Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP
4.1.6
 Introducing Routing and Switching in the Enterprise
5.2.1
 Designing and Supporting Computer Networks
6.3
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What are the “Documentation”
Addresses?
 Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 range should be used
only in examples given in documentation for networking
scenarios or tutorials
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Does BGP Support IPv6?
 The current version of BGP is BGP4
 BGP4 does support IPv6
 See http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-idr-bgp4-ipv6-01
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What IOS do I need to run IPv6?
 You need 12.0(21)T, or later, or 12.2(2)T or later
 To find out when a command was introduced, see the
Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference (go to). Locate the
command. The listing will show when it was introduced
 Also see Cisco IOS Software Release Specifics for IPv6
Features (go to)
 The Packet Tracer 2620XM router does not support IPv6
unless you upgrade the IOS image
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How many IPv6 addresses can I
configure?
Example, of IPv4 address and four IPv6 addresses, in
addition to link-local address (not shown)
Router#show run (part of output)
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
ipv6 address 2001:1:1::/64 eui-64
ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2::1/112
ipv6 address FC00:1:3::1/112
ipv6 address FC00:1:4::1/112
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