IBM-BPM-BP-BestPractices-ProcessModeling-5-GoldenRules

Report
Software Group
BPM Process Modeling Best Practices Highlights
Based on over a decade of BPM Services Engagements
[email protected]
Sr. Consulting BPM Solution Architect
Open Group Master Certified SW IT Specialist
http://IBMBPMDemos.com for more information and resources
2
Outline
 Introduction
 Definition of Terms
 Five Guidelines
– 1) Rule of Seven
– 2) Activity Granularity
– 3) Activity Description
– 4) Inputs/Outputs
– 5) The System Lane
 Conclusion
 Q&A
Definition of Terms
 Business Process Definition (BPD)
 Pool
 Swim Lane
 Milestone
 Participant
 Step/Activity
 Flow Line
 Business Event
 User Story
3
Business Process Definition (BPD)
A diagram that illustrates a business process
includes participants, steps, activities, and sub-processes
Business Process Definition objectives:
 Universally understood by both business and technologists
 Clearly and easily communicated in 5 minutes or less
– at any level of granularity
 Executable in a Business Process Management System
4
What is not a Business Process Definition?
Entity State Diagrams
Use Cases, Use Case Relationship Diagrams
System Relationship Diagram
Architectural Diagram
•
•
•
•
5
Final
Review
Workflow Model (Application Development), Screen Flow
Draft





Pool
Com Default
pone name
nt
Description
1
Lombard The default pool to hold all lanes within the
i pool
BPD. You can change the name by clicking
the pool and editing its properties.
2
Participa A default lane for end user activities. You
nt lane can change the name by clicking the lane
and editing its properties.
A container for all lanes within the BPD
6
(Swim) Lane
• Highlights role oriented activities versus the flow oriented activities
• A lane has a default set of participants
7
Milestones
A milestone in a process…
 Represents
– A period of time
– Goal/transition in the process
 May be expressed as a single
moment in time
– e.g. graduation
– A milestone end-marker
 May characterize period of time
- e.g. adolescence
 A milestone should be achieved just once in a BPD
- Looping back across a milestone is discouraged
8
Participant
A participant is a user of the WLE environment
Sets of users are Participant Groups
9
Activity/Step
A unit of granularity in a process that…
 Has a goal that can be expressed as a singular outcome
 Implemented as
– Task (human or system)
– Sub-process
 Can be a human task
– Single participant begins the activity
 Can contain multiple steps, (e.g. screens in a screen flow)
– These steps are not process steps
 Can be a sub-process
– Implemented as another BPD
10
Sequence Flow Lines
A sequence flow line…
 Defines the transition from one step or event to another
11
Events
A business event…
 Is the occurrence of a condition that triggers an activity.
 Can listen to catch a condition to trigger an activity or…
 …throw a result upon occurrence.
throw
 Types of events include the following:
– Start /End
– Timer
– Message
– Exception
12
listen
User Story
 Short, high-level statement of requirements
– Students can purchase monthly parking passes online
– Parking passes can be paid via credit cards
– Parking passes can be paid via PayPal™
– Professors can input student marks





Stakeholders and domain experts write user stories
Can include both functional and non-functional requirements
Indicate the estimated size/implementation effort
Indicate the priority
Optionally include a unique identifier
– Improves traceability
See Agile Modeling at http://www.agilemodeling.com/artifacts/userStory.htm
13
Five Guidelines to Better Process Modeling
 Introduction
 Definition of Terms
 Five Guidelines
– 1) Rule of Seven
– 2) Activity Granularity
– 3) Activity Description
– 4) Inputs/Outputs
– 5) The System Lane
 Conclusion
 Q& A
14
Example of a bad Process Model
Select
Company in
dropdown
Click button
to add a new
line item.
Click OK
15
Example of a bad Process Model
“String of
Pearls”
Pattern
“Constellation”
Pattern
16
No
Milestones
Defined
4 System
Lanes
(1) Rule of Seven
Limit any view to no more than 7 steps/activities for good fit.
Select
Candidate
Background
Check
Offer
Add Candidate To
HR Records
Orientation
Begin Work
Inform
recruiter
Criminal
record check
Create offer
letter
Input employee
information into
database
New hire orientation
class
Meet
manager
Establish
compensation
package
Drug screen
Transmit
offer letter
Request
equipment
Benefits overview
class
Obtain access
badge
Establish
start date
Release Candidate
from Process
Accept offer
Request
workspace
Provide orientation
cd
Obtain
equipment
Request access
badge
Watch orientation cd
Go to
workspace
Set employee status
to active
Complete
forms
Review
results
17
(2) Activity Granularity
 Activities should be Similar in Scope at
each level
 Look for the String of Pearls pattern.
 Look for the Constellation pattern.
 Look for Flow Line Patterns
 Remember that an Activity
– Is a step in a process that can be
implemented as a sub-process or a task.
– Definition in a Process Model should stop at
task granularity.
– A task activity is a unit of work that a single
participant (human or system) starts with
the intent to complete.
18
Purchase
Groceries
(2) Activity Granularity – Scope
Plan Party
Host Party
Clean Up
Invite Guests
Welcome
Guests
Clean the
House
Prepare
Menu
Serve
Snacks
Send Thank
You Cards
Get Veggies
Serve Cake
& Ice Cream
Get Cake
 Overloaded Milestone
(Rule of Seven)
 Dissimilar in Scope
 Too Granular in Detail
Play Games
Pay with
AMEX
Get Ice
Cream
 Where do we stop?
Open Gifts
Drive Home
Get Chips &
Dip
Play Games
Put Veggies
in Fridge
Checkout
Put Ice Cream
in Freezer
Open Door
Set Ice
Cream on
Shelf
Close Door
19
(2) Activity Granularity – Scope
Activities should be similar in scope at each level.
Plan Party
Host Party
Clean Up
Invite Guests
Welcome
Guests
Clean the
House
Prepare
Menu
Serve
Snacks
Send Thank
You Cards
Will a single person complete the activity?
Is the goal or outcome an input for the next activity?
Purchase
Groceries
Serve Cake
& Ice Cream
Play Games
Is the duration similar to others at this level?
Open Gifts
Will the activity be started with the intent to finish?
Play Games
20
(2) Activity Granularity – String of Pearls Pattern
Series of two or more activities in the same swim lane
 May indicate missing participant details
 May indicate too much detail at a low level of granularity
 May indicate misalignment in scope
21
(2) Activity Granularity – String of Pearls Pattern
Combine into a single Activity: Send Offer Letter
Before
3 serial activities for Hiring Manager
• Review Results
• Create Offer Letter
• Transmit Offer Letter
After
1 activity for Hiring Manger
22
(2) Activity Granularity – Constellation Pattern
Factor constellations to a sub-process. Look for…
• Tight groups of activities across 2-3 swim lanes
• Single flow line in & out of the group
• Lane participant may be limited to activities in the group
23
(2) Activity Granularity – Flow Line Patterns
 Generally should not flow backward to a previous milestone.
 Generally should not skip a Milestone.
 Should avoid looping back to a previous step to repeat an
activity (or sub-process) later in the process—repeat/re-use the
activity instead.
24
(3) Activity Description – Activity Naming
Activity Name = Action + Entity




[action verb] + [business object]
Avoid vague action verbs such as Process and Perform [Step]
Use action verbs that indicate a result/output
Use specific terms recognizable by the business users (even if
they might be vague to others) and describe/define the terms in
the description if necessary.
Perform
Review
25
Approve
Contract
Terms
(3) Activity Description – User Story
 Capture a 2-5 sentence description for each activity.
– As a [participant] I need to [do something] so that I can [create
business value].
26
(4) Inputs/Outputs
 Define with business entities from the business object model
 Avoid specifying state for the entity (eg. signed contract)
 Avoid specifying other qualifiers that are properties of the entity
Candidate
Job Description
Comp. Details
Offer Letter
27
(5) The System Lane
 Define only one system lane.
 Contains activities performed by the BPMS or orchestrated by
the BPMS to be performed by an external system.
 Should not contain human activities.
 Avoid the string of pearls pattern.
28
Conclusion
 Introduction
 Definition of Terms
 Five Guidelines
– 1) Rule of Seven
– 2) Activity Granularity
– 3) Activity Description
– 4) Inputs/Outputs
– 5) The System Lane
 Q&A
29
QA
&
IBM Software Services Zone for WebSphere
ibm.com/websphere/serviceszone
The destination for WebSphere services-related resources, offerings, & technical skills to
help you on your path to business agility
What’s New?
 BPM-specific resources including proven,
prescribed, and repeatable assets and offerings to
accelerate BPM adoption
 Visibility across the worldwide skills & capabilities
that only IBM Software Services for WebSphere can
bring to your project
 Access to WebSphere practitioners’ insight on
project trends, best practices & emerging
technologies through personal videos, blogs, articles
& more
 Discover defined offerings to get your project started
quickly
30
Links to Your Next Steps…
IBM BPM Delivery Capabilities
Including Education and Enablement Services
BPM Process Discovery & Modeling in the Cloud
– Blueprint Process Modeling for inventory & mapping
http://BlueworksLive.com
– Knowledge sharing & collaboration
– Process analysis & prioritization
http://IBMBPMDemos.com
BPM Process Modeling & Implementation
• Rapid process application development
• Continuous process improvement
• BPM program management
Education, Enablement and on-demand Services
• Quick Win Pilots
• Role-based education & mentoring
• Expert Services when and where they’re needed
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/
websphere/services/
Confidential

similar documents