CPS 689: ADHD Intervention

Report
Take Control of Your Test Anxiety:
Reducing Test Anxiety in a WholeClass Format
NYASP Conference 2014
Sara Dool, M.S.
Liverpool Central Schools
Michelle Storie, Ph.D
North Syracuse Central Schools
Agenda
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Research
Program Information
Assessment Measure
Intervention
Results
Implementation Tips & Suggestions
Test Anxiety Background
• Test anxiety affects 10-40% of all students (Gregor,
2005)
• Beidel and Turner (1988) found that 60% of youth
identified as displaying test anxiety symptoms also
met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder
• Test anxiety has been found to be strongly
correlated with symptoms of anxiety disorders and
affects a student’s academic and testing performance
(Beidel & Turner, 1988; Cheek, Bradley, Reynolds,
& Coy, 2002)
Test Anxiety and High-Stakes
Tests
• Test anxiety appears to be greater for highstakes assessments than regular classroom
exams
• A study conducted by Segool, Carlson, Von
Der Embse, & Barterian (2013) found that
students reported significantly greater levels of
test anxiety in response to high-stakes test
measures in comparison to classroom tests, both
for physiological and cognitive symptoms
Anxiety Intervention Techniques
• Cognitive-behavioral techniques have been
found to be effective when working with
students with anxiety and have shown average
effect sizes of 0.6-1.0 (Cheek, Bradley,
Reynolds, & Coy, 2002)
• A meta-analysis conducted by Von Der Embse,
Baterian, & Segool (2013) suggested that 9 of
10 studies within the past decade reported
positive effect sizes, yet the majority of studies
were conducted with high school students
Anxiety Intervention Techniques
• Far less research has targeted elementary
populations
• Those studies that have addressed elementary
school students tend to do so in a pull-out
format, in which students miss classroom
instruction thus potentially increasing anxiety
(Cheek, Bradley, Reynolds, & McCoy, 2002)
Anxiety Intervention Techniques
• Cheek, et al. (2002) utilized a “Stop, Drop, and Roll”
technique to address test anxiety in 16 students
identified as test-anxious, and found not only
improvements in self-reported test anxiety, but
successful testing performance in the majority of
students who took the statewide tests
• Of the 16 students selected for inclusion in the
intervention, 50% had failed the reading portion of a
benchmark test while 67% had failed the math portion.
Following the intervention, 75% of students passed the
reading test, while 94% passed the math portion
Current Study
• Researchers attempted to incorporate the
effective techniques from the meta-analysis, as
well as the Cheek, et al. (2002) study, and adapt
them to elementary school students in a wholeclass setting
• A primary goal was to implement a classwide
intervention with the focus of decreasing test
anxiety and providing strategies that could be
easily utilized and accessed by the students
Reason For Referral
• Fourth grade teacher reports of high levels
of test anxiety
• Several students already participating in
small group or individual counseling due to
anxiety
• High level of teacher interest in a grade
level intervention focusing on the reduction
of test anxiety
Sample
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Suburban/rural school district
K-6 elementary school
3 fourth grade classrooms
38 students
– 20 females
– 18 males
Assessment Measure
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Westside Test Anxiety Scale (Driscoll, 2004)
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brief, 10 item instrument designed to screen and identify students who could benefit from
an anxiety-reduction intervention
6 of the items assess performance impairment
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4 items examine worry and fears of failure
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i.e. “During important exams, I think that I am doing awful or that I may fail”.
rate each item on a scale of 1 to 5
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i.e. “I lose focus on important exams and can’t remember the material I knew before the exam”
1 = never true and 5 = always true
Responses are summed and divided by 10 to determine a score meaning
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1.0 to 1.9 = comfortably low test anxiety
2.0 to 2.5 = average test anxiety
2.5 to 2.9 = high normal test anxiety
3.0 to 3.4 = moderately high test anxiety
3.5 to 3.9 = high test anxiety
4.0 to 5.0 = extremely high test anxiety
Westside Test Anxiety Scale
Rate how true each of the following is of you, from extremely or always true, to not at all or
never true.
Use the following 5 point scale. Circle your answers:
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extremely highly moderately slightly not at all
always usually sometimes seldom never
true true true true true
__ 1) The closer I am to a major exam, the harder it is for me to concentrate on the
material.
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__ 2) When I study for my exams, I worry that I will not remember the material on the
exam.
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__ 3) During important exams, I think that I am doing awful or that I may fail.
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__ 4) I lose focus on important exams, and I cannot remember material that I knew before
the exam.
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__ 5) I finally remember the answer to exam questions after the exam is already over.
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Westside Test Anxiety Scale
__ 6) I worry so much before a major exam that I am too worn out to do my best on the
exam.
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__ 7) I feel out of sorts or not really myself when I take important exams.
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__ 8) I find that my mind sometimes wanders when I am taking important exams.
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__ 9) After an exam, I worry about whether I did well enough.
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__ 10) I struggle with written assignments, or avoid doing them, because I feel that
whatever I do will not be good enough. I want it to be perfect.
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_____ Sum of the 10 questions
< _____ > Divide the sum by 10. This is your Test Anxiety score.
Name ____________________ phone _____________ email ____________________
• School ____________
© 2004 by Richard Driscoll, Ph.D.
You have permission to copy this material.
Baseline Data
Classroom 1 Self-Ratings
Westside Test Anxiety Scale Categories
extremely high test anxiety
high test anxiety
moderately high test anxiety
high normal test anxiety
average test anxiety
comfortably low test anxiety
0
1
2
# of Students Per Category
3
4
Baseline Data
Classroom 2 Self-Ratings
Westside Test Anxiety Scale Categories
extremely high test anxiety
high test anxiety
moderately high test anxiety
high normal test anxiety
average test anxiety
comfortably low test anxiety
0
1
2
3
# of Students Per Category
4
5
6
Baseline Data
Classroom 3 Self-Ratings
Westside Test Anxiety Scale Categories
extremely high test anxiety
high test anxiety
moderately high test anxiety
high normal test anxiety
average test anxiety
comfortably low test anxiety
0
1
2
# of Students Per Category
3
4
Baseline Data Summary
• 18 out of 38 fourth graders self-rated on the
pre-assessment that they experience
“moderately high”, “high”, and “extremely
high” levels of test anxiety
Intervention
• 25 minutes per classroom
• 1x week for 7 weeks
• Lesson foci:
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General knowledge of test anxiety
Relaxation techniques
Positive self-talk
Note taking strategies
Study skills
Test-taking strategies
Review and practice
Lesson 1Introduction to Test Anxiety
• Fly Swatter Game
Lesson 2Deep Breathing & Yoga
Lesson 3Progressive Muscle Relaxation & Guided Imagery
Lesson 4Positive Self-Talk
Lesson 5Note Taking &• Study
Skills
Listen carefully for clues from teacher•
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“This is important”
Ask questions
Organize notes by topic
Find out key information-what will be on
test, type of test
Find a quiet place
Map out study sessions
Set a goal for each study time- “I will
review 2 pages of math notes”
Take short breaks
Cover up notes & summarize out loud
Make flashcards & practice with study
buddy
Crazy phrases & silly sentences,
acronyms, pictures
Lesson 6Test-Taking Strategies
Lesson 7Review
• Summarized & reviewed all strategies
discussed
• Students played Fly Swatter review game
• Students completed the post-assessment
with the Westside Test Anxiety Scale
• Also completed a survey regarding their
perceptions of the program
Results
Classroom 1 Self-Ratings
Westside Test Anxiety Scale Categories
extremely high test anxiety
high test anxiety
moderately high test anxiety
self-rating tally post-intervention
high normal test anxiety
self-rating tally pre-intervention
average test anxiety
comfortably low test anxiety
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
# of Student per Category
3.5
4
4.5
Results
Classroom 2 Self-Ratings
Westside Test Anxiety Scale Categories
extremely high test anxiety
high test anxiety
moderately high test anxiety
self-rating tally post-intervention
high normal test anxiety
self-rating tally pre-intervention
average test anxiety
comfortably low test anxiety
0
1
2
3
4
# of Students per Category
5
6
Results
Classroom 3 Self-Ratings
Westside Test Anxiety Scale Categories
extremely high test anxiety
high test anxiety
moderately high test anxiety
self-rating tally post-intervention
high normal test anxiety
self-rating tally pre-intervention
average test anxiety
comfortably low test anxiety
0
1
2
3
4
# of Students per Category
5
6
Results Summary
• Pre-intervention
– 18 out of 38 fourth graders rated test anxiety levels in
the “moderately high”, “high”, or “extremely high”
range
• Post-intervention
– Only 9 out of 38 fourth graders reported abnormal
levels of test anxiety
• Intervention met the goal of decreasing # of students
self-reporting “moderately high”, “high”, and
“extremely high” levels of test anxiety
• Effect size= -.58 (medium range)
Effect Size
Student Classroom Pre-assessment Post-assessment
1 classroom 1
1
1
2 classroom 1
2.8
2.7
3 classroom 1
3.3
1.6
4 classroom 1
1.5
1
5 classroom 1
2.9
2.3
6 classroom 1
3.7
3.9
7 classroom 1
8 classroom 1
9 classroom 1
10 classroom 1
11 classroom 1
12 classroom 1
13 classroom 2
14 classroom 2
15 classroom 2
16 classroom 2
17 classroom 2
18 classroom 2
19 classroom 2
20 classroom 2
21 classroom 2
22 classroom 2
23 classroom 2
24 classroom 2
25 classroom 2
26 classroom 3
27 classroom 3
28 classroom 3
29 classroom 3
30 classroom 3
31 classroom 3
32 classroom 3
33 classroom 3
34 classroom 3
35 classroom 3
36 classroom 3
37 classroom 3
38 classroom 3
3.8
4
1.6
3.1
3.8
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.2
1
2.2
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.9
3.3
2.3
1.6
3.1
2
2.8
4.2
4.7
3.6
1.8
3.2
1.9
2.8
2.9
2.2
3.2
3.8
4.2
3.4
1.6
2.3
2.6
2.5
1
2.2
2.1
1
1.8
2.4
1.3
3.6
3.9
2.7
2.3
1.1
2.8
1.4
3.4
4
4
2.9
1.2
1.5
2
2.4
3
2.3
1.3
1.3
Effect size (d) =
-0.58
Tips/Suggestions for
Implementation
• Blanket consent form distributed to all with “optout” option
• Target teachers with more high-stakes testing
• Begin with an icebreaker for rapport
• Have the teachers participate to help teach them
how to utilize the strategies effectively
• Incorporate hands-on activities when possible
References
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uxbdx-SeOOo click
angry bird for 4-7-8 breathing
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CITc2AxYnPY
click poses for yoga video
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aaTDNYjk-Gw
progressive muscle relaxation
• http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/A-Trip-tothe-Grand-Canyon-A-Visual-and-Physical-Exercise-forStudents-632622 grand canyon guided imagery
• http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/StudySkills-Bingo-32-Unique-Cards-787964 study skills
bingo
References
• Beidel, D. & Turner, S. (1988). Comorbidity of test anxiety and other
anxiety disorders in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 16(3),
275-287.
• Cheek, J. R., Bradley, L. J., Reynolds, J. & Coy, D. (2002). An
intervention for helping elementary students reduce test anxiety.
Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 162-165.
• Driscoll, R. (2004). Westside Test Anxiety Scale. Retrieved
from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED495968.pdf.
• Gregor, A. (2005). Examination anxiety: live with it, control it or
make it work for you? School Psychology International Journal,
26(5), 617-635.
• Larson, H. A., Yoder, A., Johnson, C., El Rahami, M., Sung, J., &
Washburn, F. (2010). Test anxiety and relaxation training in thirdgrade students. Eastern Education Journal, 39(1), 13-22.
• Segool, N., Carlson, J., Goforth, A., Von Der Embse, N., & Barterian,
J. (2013). Heightened test anxiety among young children: elementary
school students’ anxious responses to high-stakes testing, Psychology
in the Schools, 50(5), 489-499.

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