PPTX - Governors` Biofuels Coalition

25x’25- America’s Energy Future
Governors’ Biofuels Coalition
Pathways to Win-Win-Win Outcomes
Ernie Shea
25x’25 Project Coordinator
March 13, 2013
25x’25: A National Alliance
 Operates as an autonomous project of the
Energy Future Coalition
 Organized to explore agriculture and forestry’s
role in America’s energy future
 Evolved to now include conservation,
environment, business, defense and rural
development organizations and leaders
The 25x’25 Vision
By the year 2025,
America’s farms,
ranches and forests
will provide 25
percent of the total
energy consumed in
the U.S. while
continuing to produce
safe, abundant and
affordable food, feed
and fiber.
We Will Meet This Goal By:
Producing transportation fuels
Harnessing wind energy
Converting biogas emissions
Capturing solar and hydro energy
Providing biomass for generating heat and
 Encouraging energy efficiency
1,000 Partners Strong:
Where are we going
Today (2012)
~9.14 Quads
Renewable Energy
= 9.3%
98.29 Quads
Total Energy
Goal (2025)
27.25 Quads
Renewable Energy
= 25%
EIA predicts
consumption of
108 Quads by 2025
Where We Are Now?
U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by source, 2011
Hydroelectric 3.26%
Petroleum 36.23%
Nuclear 8.48%
Geothermal 0.23%
Solar/PV 0.12%
Renewable 9.30%
Wind 1.20%
Natural Gas 25.53%
Biomass 4.50%
Coal 20.46%
Outcomes of 25x’25
27.8 quads of energy
$640 billion boost to economy
4.7 million new jobs
A more secure nation
A cleaner environment
Improved public health
Heightened respect for U.S. agriculture
Fossil fuel resources are finite
Global energy consumption is increasing (nearly
30% by 2030)
The world population is growing (9.2 billion by
Fast-developing economies like India and China are
demanding more resources
Greenhouse gas emissions are increasing (World
carbon dioxide emissions expected to increase by
1.9% annually between 2001 and 2025)
America’s Mega Challenges
National Security
Economic Recovery
Environmental Improvement
America’s Mega Challenges
National Security
Economic Recovery
Public Health
Environmental Improvement
What we know about aromatics…
 Represent 20% to 30% of each gallon of gasoline by
volume (provide octane and suppress premature
 Are comprised of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX).
 Are created in crude oil refining, requiring more oil,
energy, and cost than other gasoline constituents.
 U.S. market consumes 30-40 billion gallons per year
 Primary contributors to Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions
 Uncombusted BTX also constitutes black carbon, with
significant short-term greenhouse gas effect.
Aromatics and Public Health
 EPA has called ambient particulate matter (PM) one of
the nation’s greatest heath threats
 PM from vehicular emissions represents greatest danger
 Gasoline PAHs are carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic
 Health studies link gasoline aromatics to human
mortality and a myriad of health problems including
autism, childhood obesity, premature birth, birth defects,
infant brain damage, etc., along with respiratory
conditions and cancers.
Solution Pathways
Market Forces
Regulatory Action
Mandatory Language Arising from Daschle – Dole
‘CLEAN OCTANE’ Provision in 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
CAA 202(a): EPA “shall by regulation prescribe … standards applicable to
the emission of any air pollutant from … new motor vehicles or new motor
vehicle engines, which … cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may
reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.”
CAA 202(l): For toxic pollutants, EPA “regulations shall contain standards
for such fuels or vehicles, or both, which the Administrator determines
reflect the greatest degree of emission reduction achievable.…”
Passed after extensive debate on the Senate floor by a vote of 69 – 30
Bottom Line
 PM / UFPs / PAHs from light vehicles
pose major potential health risks to
urban populations through multiple
 There is insufficient research underway
to understand these risks; and
 No clear regulatory path to mitigate
Path Forward
 Research and science tell us that we have a serious
 For whatever reason EPA, whose principle mission is to
protect public health, has chosen not to take action
 Recently finalized CAFE/GHG rules could very well
exacerbate this problem
 Governors can provide much needed leadership in
drawing national attention to this issue and
encouraging EPA to take appropriate action
Points to Ponder
 There is no silver bullet
 We face a formidable opponent
 We lack a comprehensive long range plan for realizing
the full potential of biofuels
 Spending too much time competing with ourselves for
 Time is not on our side
 The entire value chain and rural America will suffer if we
do not prevail

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