Biorefining and Bio

Report
NNFCC
Sustainable Chemicals and
Materials from Plant Sources
Dr Jeremy Tomkinson
September 2011
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable
Energy, Fuels and Materials
An Independent ‘not for profit’ company
Mission
The NNFCC is committed to the sustainable development of markets for
biorenewable products. We promote the benefits of biorenewable
energy, liquid fuels and materials for enhancement of the bioeconomy,
environment and society.
Company Activity
Advisor to UK Government
Commercial Consultancy
Member Information Service
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
EU Renewable Energy Directive
European Governments focussed on Bioenergy
Mandatory EU target of 20% renewable energy in overall energy
consumption by 2020
UK Target – 15%
Electricity
Heat
Transport
40
30
20%
2020
20
2006
47%
10
33%
2008/9
0
Electricity
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Heat
Transport
NNFCC
Biorenewable Chemicals and Polymers
Market size ~ 50 million tones
Chemical Derivatives
Natural Products
Biopolymers
Naval Stores
Oleochemicals
Amino Acids
Fermentation Products
54%
7%
4%
17%
7%
20%
1%
1%
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
5%
1%
NNFCC
Interest in bio-based chemicals - Why now?
Policy Support
Feedstock
Pressurereduce
exposure
to crude oil
prices
Technology
Drive –
reduce
process
energy
costs
Market Demand –
novel functionality,
Green premiums?
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Relative feedstock pricing
300
250
200
Agricultural Raw Materials
150
Food
Crude Oil
100
50
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Dec-10
Jun-10
Dec-09
Jun-09
Dec-08
Jun-08
Dec-07
Jun-07
Dec-06
Jun-06
Dec-05
Jun-05
Dec-04
Jun-04
Dec-03
Jun-03
Dec-02
Jun-02
Dec-01
Jun-01
Dec-00
0
NNFCC
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Biorefineries hold the key to sustainable biobased product economics
Gudbrand Rødsrud, Director Business Development, Borregaard
Innovasjon Norge workshop, Tromsø juni 2010:
”Profitability in biorefining is difficult to achieve without an
integrated approach, where bulk products such as biofuel are
produced side-by-side with high-end chemicals.”
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
DOE’s Top 12 Bio-derived building blocks (2004)
O
O
O
HO
OH
O
O
HO
OH
HO
OH
O
S u c c in ic a c id
N H2
2 ,5 -F u ra n d ic a rb o x y lic a c id
O
OH
OH
O
OH
HO
HO
O
N H2
G lu ta m ic a c id
G lu c a ric a c id
O
OH
O
OH
OH
A s p a rtic a c id
O
O
HO
OH
3 -H y d ro x y p ro p io n ic a c id
HO
C H3
HO
C H2
HO
O
O
L e v u lin ic a c id
Ita c o n ic a c id
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
HO
HO
OH
G ly c e ro l
3 -H y d ro x y b u ty ro la c to n e
OH
OH
HO
O
O
O
OH
OH
S o rb ito l
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
OH
X y lito l
NNFCC
Lignin
Syngas
Products
Hydrocarbons
Phenols
Methanol
DME
Ethanol
Mixed Alcohols
Fischer Tropsch
Liquids
C1-C7 Gasses
Benzene
Toluene
Xylene
Cyclohexane
Styrenes
Biphenyls
Phenol
Substituted
Phenols
Catchols
Cresols
Resorcinols
Eugenol
Syringols
Coniferols
Guaiacols
Oxidised
Products
Vanilin
Vanilic Acid
DMSO
Aromatic
Acids
Aliphatic Acids
Syringaldyde
Aldehydes
Quinones
Cyclohexanol
Β-keto Adipate
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Macromolecules
Carbon Fibre
Fillers
Polymer Extenders
Substituted Lignins
Thermoset Resins
Composites
Adhesives
Binders
Preservatives
Pharmaceuticals
Polyols
NNFCC
Source: Mapping the Develop of UK biorefinery complexes (Tamutech Consultancy)
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
British Sugar,
Wissington
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Wissington sugar beet processing factory. © British Sugar 2010
NNFCC
British Sugar,
Wissington
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Wissington sugar beet processing factory. © British Sugar 2010
NNFCC
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Propylene glycol from glycerol
OH
HO
ADM – Propylene glycol
•
Plant location – Decatur
US
•
Capacity 100,000 tons
OH
H 2 , ca t.
OH
•
HO
DOW Chemical Company - Status unknown
Huntsman Corporation – Status unknown
Cargil/Ashland – Capacity 65,000 tonnes, location Europe
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Epichlorohydrin from glycerol
C l2
Cl
HCl
+
C l2 , H 2 O
•
•
Solvay Epicerol® process
Demonstration - Tavaux,
France
•
•
•
•
Commercial
Plant location - Map Ta Phut
Capacity 100,000 tonnes
Glycerine demand – 120,000
tonnes
Start Up - Q1 2012
Cl
Cl
OH
HO
OH
HCl
+
OH
+
HCl
OH
ca ta lyst
Cl
Cl
NaO H
•
O
Cl
+
NaCl
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Lactic acid
•
Food and cosmetic ingredient
•
Polylactic acid – First large scale bio-based synthetic polymer
•
European demand predicted to rise from 25,000 per year to 650,000 tonnes
by 2025
•
Global lactic acid production capacity > 500,000 tonnes
•
End Products from compostable packaging to textile fibres
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Succinic acid
Succinic Acid
Polybutylene
Terephthalate
1,4-Butanediol
Tetrahydrofuran
Copolyester Ethers
Deicers/Coolent
Polytetramethylene
Ether Glycol
Thermoplastic
Polyurethanes
Solvent
Plasticisers
g-Butyrolactone
Spandex Fibres
Fuel Additives
Fine & Speciality
Chemicals
N-Methyl -2Pyrrolidone
2-Pyrrolidone
N-Vinyl-2Pyrrolidone
Fine & Speciality
Chemicals
Fine & Speciality
Chemicals
Polyvinyl
Pyrrolidone
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Les Sohette’s Biorefinery
Bazancourt–Pomacle,
France
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Les Sohette’s Biorefinery Development
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
PET - the other half?
•
•
•
Butamax and Gevo have targeted isobutanol as fuel and chemical precursor
Avantium are working on new furan platforms
Anellotech developing fast pyrolysis process to produce BTX from biomass
OH
O
O
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Ethylene Value Chain
60%
Ethanol
Ethylene
Polyethylenes
Styrene
Monomer
Ethylene
Oxide/Glycol
EDC
7%
Polymers/Rubbers
14%
12%
Polyester
PVC
7%
Other
Alpha Olefins
PVA
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Source: Nexant ChemSystems
NNFCC
Bio-ethylene market activity
•
•
•
Braskem (Brazil)
• ethylene plant commissioned Q4 2010
• Capacity 200,000 tonnes/year
– Further plants under study
Dow (Brazil)
• Planned Polyolefin production
• Capacity 350,000 tonnes/year
Solvay (Brazil)
• Planned PVC and PVA
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Value Chain Activity
TETRA PAK PLANS BIOPLASTIC TRIALS
BRASKEM AND PROCTER & GAMBLE:
WORLD PARTNERS FOR THE GREEN
POLYETHYLENE SUPPLY
THE COCA-COLA COMPANY
INTRODUCES INNOVATIVE
BOTTLE MADE FROM
RENEWABLE, RECYCLABLE,
PLANT-BASED PLASTIC
THE CAR PRODUCER TOYOTA HAS ANNOUNCED
ITS INTENTION TO USE BIO-BASED PET FOR
VEHICLE LINER MATERIAL AND OTHER INTERIOR
SURFACES
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
GHG savings per unit of land
Land unit
Output
GHG savings
Bioethanol from
wheat
1 ha
66801 MJ
3181 litres
2,472 kg CO2 eq.
LLDPE from
wheat
1 ha
1.4 tonnes
3,270 kg CO2 eq.
Using wheat grain for polyethylene delivers an additional
32% GHG saving over fuel ethanol
LLDPE from sugar
beet
Land unit
Output
GHG savings
1 ha
2.7 tonnes
6,402 kg CO2 eq.
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Market confusion – bio means
biodegradable
Samsung Reclaim M560 Phone, Earth
Green (Sprint)
Contains 40% polylactic acid
According to the blogosphere - A
biodegradable phone!
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
What is bio ?
Origin of material
Biodegradability
Example
The meaning of
the prefix “bio-”
Renewable
Biodegradable
Polyhydroxyalkanoate
(PHA)
Biodegradable
and bio-based
Non-renewable
Biodegradable
Polycaprolactone
(PCL)
Biodegradable
Renewable
Non-biodegradable
Polyethylene (PE)
from sugar cane
Bio-based
Non-renewable
Non-biodegradable
Polyetheretherketone
(PEEK) for biomedical
applications
Biocompatible
Adapted from: Taking bio-based from promise to market, EU Commission
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Labels and standards
•
Biodegradability - material function
– Plastic products can provide proof of their compostability by
successfully meeting the harmonised European standard, EN 13432
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Labels and standards
Bio-based content define by C14 levels
Vinçotte announces proudly the first OK biobased certificates of a whole range
of raw materials.
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Carbon recycling and policy development
CO2
Functional
material
Base
material
Food and
Material Cycles
Raw
material
Cultivation
Combustion
Cultivation
Energy Cycle
Solid/Liquid/Gaseous
Biofuel
EndEnd
of life/Raw
material
of life
Recycle
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Base
Material
NNFCC
Feedstock Value
• RO (Electricity)
– 1 tonne of dry biomass at 30% energy efficiency will yield
about 1.6 MWh of electricity
• £65-£72 approx sale price (£40 - £45 per MWh)
• £80 ROC price (£ 50 approx per ROC) - multiply this by 1, 1.5 or
2 depending on feedstock and technology used
• RTFO (Fuel)
– 1 tonne of dry biomass at 45% energy efficiency will yield
about 270 litres of synthetic diesel (equivalent 2.4 MWh)
• £137 approx sale price (51 p/L at £1.35/L pump price)
• £65 RTFC price – could multiply by 2 for advanced biofuels
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Furnace/Boiler
Methane
(bioSNG)
Engine/Turbine
Fischer Tropsch
Diesel / jet fuel
chemical
synthesis
Hydrogen
DiMethylEther
(DME)
Methanol
synthesis
MTO/MOGD
Formaldehyde
Carbon
monoxide
Acetyls
Ammonia
Fertilisers
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Fuels
Mixed alcohols
synthesis
syngas
Power
Gasification
Ethanol
(fermentation)
Heat
n-paraffins
direct
combustion
chemicals and materials
Fuel cell
NNFCC
Advanced bioenergy projects underway
• Bioethanol, power and heat from biowastes - Ineos Bio
(Seal Sands) – due to be operational from 2012
• Aviation fuel from waste wood - British Airways / Solena
(London) – due to be operational from 2014
• Bio SNG from wood and wastes – Progressive
Energy/National Grid – in project finance planning
• Biomethanol from wood and wastes – Choren and N East
Consortia – in project finance planning
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Biomass to Liquids - Ineos Bio Process to produce ethanol via gasification is
about to be demonstrated at commercial scale on Teesside.
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
FEED completed for initial plant at Teesside
Distillation
Fermentation
Power
generation
Gasification
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Ineos Bio Programme
•
•
•
•
144 kt pa bioethanol
43 MW of gross renewable power
Greater than 1 Mt pa of wastes diverted from Landfill
Greater than 500 kt pa CO2 avoided
Ethanol
(kt pa)
Gross Power
(MW)
Exported
Power (MW)
Feedstock
Required (kt
pa)
Start-Up
Phase A
24
7
3
124
2012
Phase B
120
36
20
621
2015
Integrated
Facility
144
43
23
745
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Advantages
• > 90% greenhouse gas savings vs. petrol / gasoline
• Potential for bioethanol to be cheaper than petrol
• Provides energy in addition to fuel
• High diversion of biodegradable wastes from landfill
• Wastes generated locally converted to clean fuel for local
use
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
NNFCC
Illustrative BA/Solena Jet Fuel Plant
Schematic
Gas cleaning /polishing and
conditioning
Gasification
Syngas
cleaning &
conditioning
Fischer
Tropsch
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Wax
upgrading
NNFCC
% saving vs fossil reference
Biofuel % GHG Savings
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
94
94
87
92
70
48
53
29
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
88
Petrol substitutes
73
Diesel substitutes
NNFCC
Bio-based chemicals – growth potential
Chemicals from Renewable Materials
5,000,000
4,500,000
Plant Capacity (tonnes)
4,000,000
3,500,000
3,000,000
2,500,000
Production Capacity
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
Acetic Acid
Acrylic Acid
Adipic Acid
Butanol
Cellulose
Epichlorohydrin
Ethylene
Isoprene
Lactic Acid
Polyhydroxyalkanoates
Propanediol (1,3)
Propylene
Propylene Glycol
Starch (in bioplastic)
Succinic Acid
Excludes traditional chemicals
e.g. amino acids, oleochemicals
2010
2015
2020
2025
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials
Source: NNFCC
NNFCC
Summary
Bio-based product opportunities are being driven by:
Technology development
Feedstock pricing
Market pull
Considerable industry activity, however some issues:
Access to feedstock
Access to finance
Biorefinery development is key to the long term success of biobased products
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
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NNFCC
www.nnfcc.co.uk
Website: www.nnfcc.co.uk
Email: [email protected]
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Any Questions?
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Email: [email protected]
The UK’s National Centre for Biorenewable Energy, Fuels and Materials

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