Feb-May 2013 - GridWise® Architecture Council

Report
GridWise Architecture Council Meeting
Edison Electric Institute
Washington, DC
August 28, 2013
Andrew Nicholls
George Hernandez
PNNL
1 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
eere.energy.gov
DOE Buildings Grid Engagement
• Driver: EERE Grid Integration Initiative in FY 2014 Congressional Budget
Request
• Outreach and Engagement
– Sept. 2012 Participated in “Electricity Distribution System Workshop”
– Nov. 2012 Participated in “Electricity Transmission System Workshop”
– Dec. 2012 Building to Grid Technical Meeting at NREL with industry and DOE labs
to obtain input on EERE draft vision, establish community of thought, document
state of art, identify barriers and opportunities
– Feb. 2013 GWAC Workshop in Atlanta – present EERE draft vision to GWAC
Council, set stage for request of input on upcoming report
– Feb-May 2013 Engage GWAC to ensure strong bldgs. focus at May Conference
– May 2013 GWAC Workshop: Overview of EERE Grid Integration Initiative and
DOE Technical Opportunities report, call for authors to help complete report
– May 2013 GWAC TE Conference in Portland: plenary (Risser and Parks) and
buildings-focused sessions
– June 2013 IEE (Edison Foundation) hosts Washington, DC meeting with
members with innovative utility projects (Con Ed, Pepco, NV Energy)
– August 2013 GWAC Meeting at EEI
2
BTO Grid Integration Portfolio
• Buildings-to-Grid Reference Document (PNNL)
– Define general characteristics of transaction-based framework needed
to form information backbone to realize vision; establish distinction
between physical/financial transactions, define who can participate and
how and value thereby; define functional requirements of solutions that
could scale.
– Draft due end of Fiscal Year, Final end of Calendar Year
• Case Studies of Transactions-Based Approaches (DOE labs,
industry)
– Compile list of case studies with range of transactions-based elements to
understand state of art, lessons learned, and gaps. Include relevant
buildings controls projects.
– Federal Register Request for Information
– Your input would be greatly appreciated
– End Product: Searchable online database
3
4
BTO Grid Integration Portfolio
• Evaluate Demand & Renewable Energy Response in building
technologies (PNNL) (Heat pump water heaters, commercial building
rooftop HVAC units)
– Project goals - Evaluate degree to which
•
•
•
•
Demand response/ancillary services can be provided
Response provides substantial added value to consumers
Effective accommodation of variable generation assets is feasible
Response compromises ability to provide traditional peak load management
services, reduces equipment life, or reduces delivered energy efficiency
• Grid-Ready Building Equipment (PNNL, LBNL, Navigant)
– Address data/communication/interoperability protocols/standards for device
engagement & control as part of a demand management strategy
• Talk to Rob Pratt if you would like more information about these
projects
5
Buildings-to-Grid Technical Opportunities Report
• Process
– Define BTO vision, broadly characterize barriers and challenges, identify
attributes of solutions: DOE, LBNL, NREL, ORNL, PNNL
– Examine challenge from three points of view: Grid-to Buildings;
Buildings-to-Grid; enabling Communications and information technology
– Define technical, market and policy gaps between the vision and today’s
solutions
– Identify participant-specific value propositions for engaging in
transactions-based approach to energy
• Timeline
– Draft V1 of report with lab input completed May 2013
– Draft V2 with industry input by Sept. 2013
– Post report for public comment (Request for Information) in Federal
Register by Oct. 2013
6
B2G Technical Opportunities Report – Vision
To achieve the nation’s objectives for utilities to accommodate high
levels of clean energy generation while improving reliability and
maintaining the cost effectiveness of the power grid, this new
installed grid infrastructure must be used in a continuously optimized
manner. The framework DOE proposes will therefore need to enable
the harnessing and coordination of millions of small, distributed
assets such as demand response (DR) in buildings, distributed
generation and storage, and EVs to provide valuable grid services.
The purpose of transaction-based control schemes for these assets is
to seamlessly integrate them into a collaborative, incentive-based
network that, from the perspective of grid operations, functions as a
virtual control system, and enables and motivates them to transact
and deliver energy services to the grid at the lowest possible cost
while providing building owners and occupants new value streams.
7
Thank you to reviewers from following entities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8
Caron Consulting
Carrier
Cisco
Emerson
Enernex
GE Appliances
Honeywell
8. Joule Assets
9. MIT
10.NIST
11.Quality Logic
12.Sensus Metering
Systems
13.Trane
Sample Input on Gaps from Utility POV
• Lack of a comprehensive grid control architecture that provides
means to perform B2G integration
– Federations, disaggregation, constraint fusion, boundary deference,
coordinated local “selfish” optimization
• Lack of grid communications infrastructure that would support
a comprehensive grid control architecture
• Present regulatory environment does not support necessary
local or distributed energy market elements
• Utility business models do not encourage B2G adoption
• Unclear impact of utility cyber and physical security
requirements on B2G control integration
• Distribution level grid connectivity may be poorly known,
leading to power and control integration difficulties
9
What DOE Requests from GWAC Members
• Industry help in identifying Significant Gaps (between Barriers
and Vision) from Grid, Buildings, Communications perspectives.
– Where do challenges exist for which no or very little work is being
conducted today?
– What gaps must to be addressed to take promising solutions to scale?
• Industry help in describing potential participant-specific value
propositions for actively engaging in buildings-to-grid integration
from Grid, Buildings, Communications perspectives.
– Why will IOUs, investor-owned utilities, publicly owned power systems,
and load-serving entities and others want to participate, given their own
motivations?
– Why will building owners want to participate? What specific benefits
might they see?
• Case Studies
• Send Comments to Andrew Nicholls [email protected]
10
Transactional Network Project
11
11
Project Objectives and Team
• The transactional network enables energy
saving retrofit solutions AND the networked
systems to transact with the grid to mitigate
variable distributed renewable energy
sources
• Initially, the transactional concept is
demonstrated using networked RTUs
• In the future, the concept can be extended to
network other building systems, interaction
between buildings and electric vehicles
• Work is being done at the three national
laboratories
– Pacific Northwest
– Oak Ridge
– Lawrence Berkeley
12
What is the Transactional Network?
• Transactional network enables:
– Interactions among networked systems (e.g. RTUs and other building
systems) and the electric power grid
– software applications on the platform or in the Cloud
• Embedded automated diagnostics and advanced controls on the
transactional platform and the RTU controller
• Applications running in the Cloud in cases where the transactional
platform and controller resources (i.e. processing) are inadequate
• Applications that provide continuous monitoring and verification,
automated energy management, etc.
13
13
Why RTUs?
• Packaged air conditioners and heat pumps
(RTUs) are used in about 58% of all cooled
commercial buildings, serving about 69% of
the cooled commercial building floor space
(EIA 2003)
– Packaged A/C uses 0.9 quads of electricity for cooling
annually and 0.4 quads of heating (source)
• Operating efficiency is low due to lack of:
– advanced controls to improve part load performance
– equipment maintenance
• RTUs cannot easily interact with the grid to be
more responsive to grid needs
14
14
Embedded Advanced RTU Controls
•
Challenge: Most RTUs operate inefficiently
– lack of advanced controls
• constant supply speed fan, integrated economizer controls
and constant ventilation
•
Objective: Improve operational efficiency of RTUs
through use of advanced RTU controls leading to
energy and carbon emission reductions between 30%
and 50%
•
Implementation: Install variable frequency drives on
supply fans and retrofit the RTU with an advanced
controller having following control strategies:
– integrated economizers
– variable or multiple speed fan
– variable capacity control and
– demand controller ventilation
•
15
15
Verification of Performance: Comparison of
consumption between standard and advanced RTU
control modes
Demand Response Agent
• Inputs: DR signal from an external source
• Outputs: Modifies RTU control sequences by changing space set
point temperatures, controls supply fan speed (if the fan has a
variable frequency drive), limits compressor staging
• Verification of Performance: Comparison of estimated
expected consumption with actual measured
• Control Actions:
– Pre-cooling, set point adjustments
and fan speed changes
– Post-DR recovery will be gradual
to avoid “rebound” effect
16
16
Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics: Air
Side Agent
• AFDD Capabilities:
– Comparing discharge air temperature with
mixed air temperature (AFDD0)
– Checking damper modulation (AFDD1)
– Sensor faults (outdoor, mixed and return air
temperature) (AFDD2)
– Not economizing when RTU should (AFDD3)
– Economizing when RTU should not (AFDD4)
– Excess outdoor air (AFDD5)
– Inadequate outdoor ventilation air (AFDD6)
• Unique: Diagnostics algorithms
will initiate proactive tests (e.g.
commanding damper, etc.)
• Energy Impacts: Energy impacts
will be estimated for AFDD3,
AFDD4 and AFDD5 faults
17
17
Smart Monitoring + Diagnostics System
Web Access
Microsoft Azure Cloud
Web UIServer
Database
SMDS
• Inputs: Uses only three data
points sampled at 1 minute
intervals
– Outdoor air temperature
– Total RTU power
VOLTTRON Lite
Agent
– Fan speed signal
• Outputs: Automatically detects
and reports
Information Exchange Bus
Agent
18
18
Device Driver
Agent
…
Controller
Controller
Controller
RTU 1
RTU 2
RTU 3
Agent
Controller
…
RTU n
– Refrigerant-side performance
degradation (or improvement)
– Energy and cost impacts of the
degradation (or improvement)
– Operation schedule changes
– Selected operation faults, such as
compressor short cycling, 24/7
operation, system never on, and
inadequate ventilation

similar documents