7 - Cal State LA - Instructional Web Server

Unit 7: Temperatures of the Lower
Average January surface temperatures.
Source: http://www.meteo.psu.edu/~j2n/3_1_avetemp_sub.bmp
• Discuss the measurement and
characteristics of temperature and
• Explain the adiabatic process
whereby vertically moving air warms
and cools
• Discuss the global distribution of
temperatures and their variation in
time and space
Temperature, Temperature Scales
• What is temperature?
• Thermometers
• Scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin
Source: http://www.windows2universe.org/physical_science/basic_tools/images/thermometers_kelvin_celsius_fahrenheit_sm.gif
The Vertical Distribution of Temperature
• Environmental Lapse Rate
• Adiabatic Lapse Rates
-Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR)
- Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR)
• Stability
-inversions (ground, subsidence)
-conditionally stable
• Stability and Air Pollution
James Glaisher and his assistant, Coxwell,
during a balloon flight on September 5, 1862.
Concept of Stability
Source: http://epswww.unm.edu/facstaff/gmeyer/envsc101/wk11atmcompcirc.htm
Environmental lapse rate conditions
In an unstable atmosphere numerous thunderstorms billow up as
viewed over southern Florida looking south.
Downtown Los Angeles is a
leading city of air pollution due
to poor vertical and horizontal
mixing. Throughout the
summer, there is a restrictive
temperature inversion over the
region. Adopting the strictest air
pollution controls in the world,
the air quality has improved
Fig. 8.7 3rd ed.
Horizontal Distribution of Temperature
• Temporal cycles
-Daily cycle
-Annual cycle
• Heating of land vs. water
-maritime effect
-continental effect, continentality
• Global temperature variations
-seasonal variations
-isotherms and temperature gradients
Daily Radiation Patterns
Figure 3.12
Land–Water Heating Differences
Figure 3.20
The annual range in sea surface temperature (A) and the
lag between maximum solar heating and the date of
maximum temperature (B).
Fig 8.9-annual
regimes for
inland vs coast
Effects of
Figure 3.17
Annual Temperature Regime in Siberia
Source: http://www.verkhoyansk.climatemps.com/
Mean sea-level air temperatures, in Fahrenheit for January
Source: http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter3/graphics/jan_temps.jpg
Mean sea-level air temperatures, in Fahrenheit for July
Source: http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter3/graphics/july_temps.jpg
Global Temperature Ranges
Figure 3.28
Urban Heat Island
Figure 3.30
Air Temperature and
the Human Body
• Wind chill
– Correlates cold and wind speed
• Heat index
– Correlates heat and humidity
Wind Chill Table
Figure 1
Heat Index
Figure 2

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