assignment 4 psychologoy NEW

Assignment: Describe the short and long
term effects of psychological factors on
sports training and performance.
Psychological factors
Your state of mind will play a big part in how you
There are three main factors to consider:
what motivates you
how aroused you are
your ability to concentrate
Your personality.
• Arousal refers to
how excited you
feel before a
sporting event.
• For each sport and
individual there is
an optimum, or
‘best’, arousal level
at which your
performance will be
at its highest.
Anxiety is a negative emotional feeling that
occurs when arousal levels are too high
Two types: trait or state anxiety
• Too little arousal, and you will perform
below your best.
• Too much arousal, and your performance
will fall apart.
• For contact sports, where there is an
element of pain, a high level of arousal is
• For sports like snooker, where high levels of
concentration and a delicate touch are
needed, the best level of arousal is lower.
Importance of sporting contest –how will this
decrease a performers arousal level and how
can this increase performers arousal levels.
Social conditions – when are you arousal and
performance levels higher? Friends?
Relaxation/Stimulus Training – which will
increase arousal and which will decrease
arousal – effect of each?
Understand the signs – How will knowing or
not knowing the signs increase or decrease
arousal levels?
The individual, unique characteristics or traits
of a person, which determine behaviour
Type of character, 2 general types:
Some people may be more one than the other
or a bit of both – these are stereotypical.
A coach may link this to arousal
Characteristics – shy, prefer to work alone,
intrinsically motivated, quiet, calm, don’t like
pressure, perform best with low levels of
Training will be focused and relate to intrinsic
goals, training through practice and
Characteristics – outgoing, confident,
competitive, enjoys team sports, loud, excel
under pressure need high levels of arousal.
Training will be orientated around
competition or group training sessions to be
most successful.
• Concentration is your ability to ignore
external factors that would otherwise
distract you from your task.
• If you lack experience in a sport, it is
harder to concentrate. You have not
yet learned what is important, and
what is not.
example; football = ignoring a large
distracting crowds (chants etc).
Too much information will hinder
performance – this means there is too much
information to process and will negatively
affect concentration. If an athlete is thinking
about too many things they will not focus or
prioritise – give an example.
Stimulus load – Training should reflect
competition and overload them with
information so performers can identify how
to deal with this and be aware of when it is
Develop motor programs – subconscious
response so athletes can deal with certain
techniques without thinking and so can focus
on other elements.
Is what gives the performer the energy to do something.
There are lots of reasons why people are motivated to play
sport? For example:
Motivating factors can be classed as:
Personal pride
The will to win
Wanting to be the
Financial reward
Public Acclaim
A cup or trophy
Tangible – Direct benefit or reward to the
athlete i.e. you get paid or your performance
will improve
Intangible – the bigger picture is not a direct
reward for you i.e. promotion for your team
in football
SMART Targets
Goal setting is a simple motivational
technique that can provide some structure for
your training and competition program. Goals
give a focus :
S - goals must be Specific
M - training targets should be Measurable
A - goals should be Adjustable
R - goals must be Realistic
T - training targets should be Time based

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