Personality: Vive la Difference!

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Personality:
Vive la Difference!
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
What Is Personality?
A set of behavioral, emotional,
and cognitive tendencies that
people display over time and
across situations
Z What are some terms you use
to describe the personalities of
others?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
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Freud: Consciousness
Z Conscious level
Z Normal
awareness
Z Preconscious
level
Z Easily brought to
consciousness
Z Unconscious
level
Z Hidden thoughts
and desires
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Freud: Structural Model
Z The id
Z Unconscious level
Z Present at birth
Z Home to sexual and aggressive drive
Z Governed by the pleasure principle
Z Think Homer Simpson
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Freud: Structural Model
Z The superego
Z Preconscious and unconscious
levels
Z Develops in childhood
Z Home to morality and
conscience
Z Governed by the ego ideal
Z Think Ned Flanders
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Freud: Structural Model
Z The ego
Z Conscious, preconscious, and
unconscious levels
Z Develops in childhood (before superego)
Z Acts as a referee between id and
superego
Z Governed by the reality principle
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“
Question
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“
Anthony is sick of writing papers and studying for tests,
but he knows he needs a college degree if he wants to
be successful in his chosen career. So every morning
Anthony gives himself a "dressing down" - in essence
yelling at himself - to make himself get out of bed and
go to classes, and every evening he does the same
thing to get himself to do his work. According to Freud,
which personality structure is in control here?
Z A) id
Z B) ego
Z C) unconscious
Z D) superego
Z E) preconscious
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Anthony is sick of writing papers and studying for tests,
but he knows he needs a college degree if he wants to
be successful in his chosen career. So every morning
Anthony gives himself a "dressing down" - in essence
yelling at himself - to make himself get out of bed and
go to classes, and every evening he does the same
thing to get himself to do his work. According to Freud,
which personality structure is in control here?
Z A) id
Z B) ego
Z C) unconscious
Z D) superego
Z E) preconscious
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Freud:
Personality Development
Z We must pass through
psychosexual stages
successfully
Z Each stage focuses on how we
receive pleasure
Z Failure to pass through a stage
leads to fixation
Z In times of stress, we regress to
that stage
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Freud: Psychosexual Stages
Z Oral stage (birth to 1 year)
Z Anal stage (1 to 3 years)
Z Phallic stage (3 to 6 years)
Z Oedipus and Electra complexes
Z Latency period (6 to puberty)
Z Genital stage (puberty
onward)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Question
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“
Which of the following is the
correct order of Freud's
psychosexual stages?
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
A) oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency
B) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
C) latency, anal, oral, phallic, genital
D) anal, genital, phallic, latency, oral
E) anal, genital, oral, phallic latency
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Which of the following is the
correct order of Freud's
psychosexual stages?
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
A) oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency
B) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
C) latency, anal, oral, phallic, genital
D) anal, genital, phallic, latency, oral
E) anal, genital, oral, phallic latency
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Question
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“
Jason has been having an affair with another
woman. One afternoon his wife came home
later than usual and Jason became angry -accusing his wife of infidelity. Which defense
mechanism is behind Jason's accusation?
Z A) denial
Z B) projection
Z C) rationalization
Z D) reaction formation
Z E) intellectualization
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Jason has been having an affair with another
woman. One afternoon his wife came home
later than usual and Jason became angry -accusing his wife of infidelity. Which defense
mechanism is behind Jason's accusation?
Z A) denial
Z B) projection
Z C) rationalization
Z D) reaction formation
Z E) intellectualization
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“
Freud’s Followers
Z Strive for superiority
Z Inferiority complex
Z Karen Horney
Z Privilege envy
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Question
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“
Horney criticized Freud for his idea of penis
envy, suggesting that it is not the penis that
women want but the power associated with
being male in a male-dominated society. Your
text refers to Horney's version as:
Z A) privilege envy.
Z B) castration anxiety.
Z C) the glass ceiling.
Z D) feminism.
Z E) power envy.
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“
Horney criticized Freud for his idea of penis
envy, suggesting that it is not the penis that
women want but the power associated with
being male in a male-dominated society. Your
text refers to Horney's version as:
Z A) privilege envy.
Z B) castration anxiety.
Z C) the glass ceiling.
Z D) feminism.
Z E) power envy.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Critiques of Freud
Z Not scientific
Z Hard to test
Z Too broad
Z Claims are hard to falsify
Z Based on limited sample
Z Female patients
Z Upper class
Z 19th-century Vienna
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“
Humanistic Theories
Humanists focus on people’s positive
aspects: their innate goodness,
creativity, and free will
Reaction to Freud’s emphasis on…
Hedonic tendencies
Unconscious basis of behavior
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“
Humanistic Theories
Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of needs
Self-actualization
Carl Rogers
Unconditional positive regard
Conditions of worth
Criticisms
Idealistic
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“
Personality:
Traits or Situations?
Trait view
We think and behave consistently
across situations
Situationist view
Our thoughts and behaviors change
with the situation
Interactionist view
Both traits and situations affect
thoughts and behavior
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“
Question
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“
Barbara is basically a shy person who avoids conflict.
When someone tried to carjack her, she fought back
hitting and pushing her car door open onto her assailant
until she was able to speed away. Theorists would say
that this departure from her normal personality is due to
________ .
A) interactionism
B) situationism
C) parasympathetic nervous
system response
D) autonomic nervous system
response
E) her collective unconscious
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Barbara is basically a shy person who avoids conflict.
When someone tried to carjack her, she fought back
hitting and pushing her car door open onto her assailant
until she was able to speed away. Theorists would say
that this departure from her normal personality is due to
________ .
A) interactionism
B) situationism
C) parasympathetic nervous
system response
D) autonomic nervous system
response
E) her collective unconscious
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Trait Theories: The Big Five
Openness to experience
Closed
Open
Conscientiousness
Undependable
Dependable
Extraversion
Withdrawn
Outgoing
Agreeableness
Low
High
Neuroticism
Stable
Unstable
Question
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“
Which of the following is NOT
one of the superfactors
identified as the "Big Five?"
A) openness
B) self-sufficiency
C) conscientiousness
D) agreeableness
E) extroversion
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Which if the following is NOT
one of the superfactors
identified as the "Big Five?"
A) openness
B) self-sufficiency
C) conscientiousness
D) agreeableness
E) extroversion
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Question
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“
If Sylvia is described as trustworthy,
altruistic and tender-minded, then she
probably is fairly high on the Big Five
superfactor known as ________ .
A) extraversion
B) neuroticism
C) openness
D) agreeableness
E) conscientiousness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
If Sylvia is described as trustworthy,
altruistic and tender-minded, then she
probably is fairly high on the Big Five
superfactor known as ________ .
A) extraversion
B) neuroticism
C) openness
D) agreeableness
E) conscientiousness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Measuring Personality:
Interviews and Observation
Interviews
Structured set of questions (can be
modified)
Focuses on specific thoughts and
behaviors
Hard to generalize beyond interview
Observation
Focuses on behaviors, not thoughts
Works best if judge knows participant
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“
Measuring Personality:
Inventories
Questionnaires (paper or
computer)
Produce a personality profile
Easy to score and statistically
analyze
Social desirability
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Measuring Personality:
Projective Tests
Include Rorschach and TAT
Concerns about validity and
reliability
What do you see?
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“
Biological Influences on
Personality
Do horse breeds have
common personality
traits?
Do dog breeds have
common personality
traits?
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Temperament
Innate tendencies to behave
in certain ways
Correlation between
temperament at infancy and
adulthood
Shyness
Sensation seeking
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“
Other Temperament Traits
Sociability
Emotionality
Activity
Impulsivity
Reactivity
Self-regulation
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“
Question
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“
Some aspects of personality are
biologically based and others appear
to be learned, but temperament is
________ .
A) innate
B) learned
C) flexible
D) predicted
E) evolutionary
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Some aspects of personality are
biologically based and others appear
to be learned, but temperament is
________ .
A) innate
B) learned
C) flexible
D) predicted
E) evolutionary
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“
Heritability
Heritability of personality
Minnesota twin studies (MISTRA)
Heritability of specific
behaviors
.5 for work and leisure interests
.44-.8 for happiness
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“
Question
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“
What have twin studies
suggested about
extroversion?
A) It is learned behavior.
B) It is a result of cognitive
programming.
C) It is mostly inherited.
D) It is partly inherited and partly
environmental.
E) It does not rise to the level of
superfactor.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
What have twin studies
suggested about
extroversion?
A) It is learned behavior.
B) It is a result of cognitive
programming.
C) It is mostly inherited.
D) It is partly inherited and partly
environmental.
E) It does not rise to the level of
superfactor.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Question
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“
The source a person believes to
be exerting control over life's
events is called ________ .
A) low self-esteem
B) low self-efficacy
C) high self-efficacy
D) an internal focus
E) locus of control
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
The source a person believes to
be exerting control over life's
events is called ________ .
A) low self-esteem
B) low self-efficacy
C) high self-efficacy
D) an internal focus
E) locus of control
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Personality and Birth Order
First-born or
only child
Middle-born
Later-born
•Conscientious •Less identified •Agreeable
with family
•Neurotic
•Extraverted
•Open to
experience
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Personality and Gender
Female
More empathic
More neurotic
Greater social
connectedness
Male
Greater
individuality
More
aggressive
More assertive
Nature or nurture?
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“
Question
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Which of the following is Jim,
a middle-born, likely to
experience?
A) He is more likely to ask for parental
help in an emergency.
B) He is more likely to feel closely
identified with his family.
C) He is more likely to report having
been loved as a child.
D) He feels more temperamental about
his status.
E) He is more rebellious and impulsive.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Which of the following is Jim,
a middle-born, likely to
experience?
A) He is more likely to ask for parental
help in an emergency.
B) He is more likely to feel closely
identified with his family.
C) He is more likely to report having
been loved as a child.
D) He feels more temperamental about
his status.
E) He is more rebellious and impulsive.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
“
Personality and Culture
Difficult to compare personality across
cultures
Collectivism
Focus on the needs of the group
Chinese, African, Latin American, Arab cultures
Individualism
Focus on needs of the individual
United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
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