Black Hair Care Presentation

Black Hair Care
By: Kaitlin Jackson
Why is my hair different?
• Hair consists of 3 bonds: disulfide, hydrogen, and salt bonds.
• Disulfide bonds are responsible for the curl in black hair. The
more disulfide bonds, the kinkier the curl. These bonds can
only be broken by chemical reagents (relaxers!).
• Hydrogen bonds are the most flexible bonds in hair. Easily
broken in the presence of water and heat and are the primary
bonds responsible for changing our hairs overall shape.
• Salt bonds are formed when a positively charged amino acid is
bonded to a negatively charged amino acid. They are
abundant throughout the cortex (center of hair strand) and
are broken by pH changes in the hair.
• Older hair is more porous than newer hair. Hair with low
porosity doesn’t absorb moisture as much as porous hair and
is resistant to chemical treatments.
• Highly porous hair absorbs more water when wet but loses
even more as it dries.
• To check if your hair is porous perform a test on freshly
washed and dried hair. Slide your thumb and forefinger up
one strand. If you feel bumps or it feels uneven it’s porous.
• Another characteristic of porous hair is that it wets easily
when you prepare to shampoo it.
• Low pH products and styling treatments reduce the hair’s
porosity by constricting the cuticle and causing it to tighten.
High pH products have the opposite effect and increase the
hair’s porosity by swelling and lifting the cuticle scales.
Hair Problems
• How do I know?
– Breakage vs shedding- just before a hair is ready
to shed, it stops producing melanin so it will have
a characteristic white tip. If it does not have this,
it’s breakage.
– Moisture-Protein Balance- To be able to tell if
your breakage is due to moisture deficiency or
protein deficiency, perform a wet hair test. Get
your hair sopping wet in the shower and before
applying shampoo to it, perform a few tests.
• Moisture Deficient
– If you pull on your hair and it doesn’t spring back into
its normal wet position or if it doesn’t stretch far
before breaking, your hair is inelastic and is a
symptom of moisture deficiency.
– If your hair feels hard or rigid while wet this is also a
symptom of moisture deficiency. Well-hydrated hair
tends to feel soft and supple.
– If it takes a noticeably large amount of time for your
hair to feel wet this may be due to lack of moisture.
• Protein Deficient
– If you can pull on your hair and it stretches a long time
before actually breaking, then your hair is super-elastic
and is protein-deficient.
– If your hair feels too soft to the point that it may feel
fragile, your hair is protein deficient. Protein strengthens
your hair and can make your hair feel harder and stronger.
– If your hair can’t hold a curl when you curl it with a curling
iron or put curlers in it until it dries, this is also a symptom
of protein deficient hair.
• Causes of moisture deficiency:
Excess sun exposure
Harsh shampoo products
Heavy oil use
Overuse of heat styling
• Causes of Protein deficiency:
– Excess sun exposure
– Overuse of chemical treatments (relaxing and
– Overuse of deep-conditioning treatments in a regimen
• How do I fix it?
– Maintain a moisture-protein balance. Perform a wet
hair test frequently to see if your hair needs more
protein or more moisture and treat it accordingly.
Listen to your hair!
– Wash your hair 1-2 times a week-Washing your hair
replenishes the stress caused between washings due
to regular styling and any other harsh conditions you
may be exposed to. Be sure to always follow a
washing with moisturizer and an oil to seal it in
• How do I fix it?
– Chemical processes- generally those who undergo
chemical treatments require more protein treatments than
those with natural hair. These processes break the protein
structure in your hair. For the first month or so after one of
these processes, you may need to apply a protein
conditioner once every 2 weeks. After the first month,
about once a month from then on may be necessary. Be
sure to follow up a protein conditioner with a deep
conditioner. When you’re not using a protein conditioner
use a moisturizing conditioner. Deep condition your hair
about once a week. These estimates vary for each person.
Be sure to evaluate your hair periodically and decide
whether you need more protein or more moisture.
• How do I fix it?
– Naturals- Natural hair tends to have a better
moisture-protein balance than hair that has
undergone chemical processes. A protein
conditioner may be necessary about once every 68 weeks. When you’re not using a protein
conditioner, use a moisturizing conditioner. These
time periods can vary for each person. Evaluate
your hair periodically to see if your hair may need
more moisture or more protein
• How do I fix it?
– Moisture Deficient- If your hair is moisture deficient,
use a moisturizing conditioner most of the time. Look
for a sulfate-free shampoo to use for each washing. If
heavy product buildup occurs and your hair is
moisture deficient, use a chelating shampoo but be
sure and follow up with a deep conditioner. Use a
deep conditioner once a week. Use as cold of water as
you can tolerate to rinse out your conditioner. This
causes the hair cuticle to close and lock in the
moisture from your conditioner. Use a water-based
moisturizer after each washing and apply a polar oil to
lock in your moisturizer. These time periods may vary
for each person, evaluate your hair and decide what
your hair needs.
• How do I fix it?
– Protein Deficient- Using either a protein
conditioner or protein treatment may be
necessary about once a month. Follow up a
protein conditioner or protein treatment with a
deep conditioner. When not using a protein
conditioner, use a moisturizing conditioner. These
time periods are flexible and may vary for each
• Possible regimen:
• Moisture Deficient:
– Choose a moisturizing shampoo and conditioner from the same
– Choose a deep conditioner.
– Select a water-based moisturizer and polar oil.
– Wash with your moisturizing shampoo and conditioner once
every 5 days
– Every other washing use your deep conditioner instead of your
moisturizing conditioner. Leave it on your hair with a
conditioning cap for at least 30 minutes and rinse with as cold of
water as you can tolerate.
– Apply a water-based moisturizer after each washing and a polar
– Apply your moisturizer and polar oil throughout washings when
• Protein deficient
– Choose a moisturizing shampoo and conditioner from the
same brand.
– Choose a protein conditioner and a deep conditioner.
– Wash your hair with your moisturizing shampoo and
conditioner once a week.
– Wash your hair with a moisturizing shampoo and protein
conditioner about once a month. Follow up the protein
conditioner with a deep conditioner.
– Follow up each washing with your choice of moisturizer
and oil.
– Apply your moisturizer and oil between washings when
Split Ends
• How do I know? 3 main types of split ends
– Splitting Ends- Splitting ends occur when the outer layer of
the hair is broken and the inside is exposed. This results in
a sharp turn normally near the end of the strand of hair
making a V-shape.
– Split Ends- You know a split end when you see one
because it appears as if one strand of hair goes into several
different directions near the end of the hair.
– Trichorrhexis Nodosa- This is a type of split end which
normally occurs due to overuse of heat. Excessive stress
near the end of the hair can cause the innermost layer of
the hair to explode. This results in a V-shape with a white
dot at the node of the V.
Split Ends
• Trichorrhexis nodosa
Split Ends
• Causes
– Split ends are caused by stress to the ends of the
hair. This stress can be from overuse of heat,
rough brushing, improper hair accessories, and
chemical processes.
Split Ends
• How do I fix it?
– The only real cure for a split ends is a pair of
scissors. Once it is split it is not going to reseal.
However, there are products that claim to fix them
meaning that they can temporarily reseal it so
you don’t have to cut your hair if you really don’t
want to. Understand that this is only temporary.
Once the product is washed out your end is still
Split Ends
• How do I fix it?
– Heat- As a general rule of thumb, don’t apply heat to your hair more
than once a week. Excessive heat is the leading cause of trichorrhexis
– Chemical Processes- For those who undergo relaxers or color
treatments, try to lengthen the time span between appointments (at
least 8 weeks). These processes break your hair’s protein structure
leaving the hair weaker than natural hair; thus it’s easier to split and
– Detangling- When combing your hair, be sure to use a moisturizer and
start at the ends. Brushing from the roots without detangling the ends
first can cause split ends or pulling out entire strands of hair. Start at
the bottom of the hair and detangle it, then work your way up in 2-3
inch segments.
– Moisture-Protein Balance- Maintaining your hair at a healthy moisture
and protein balance makes it strong. This is a necessity to prevent split
ends. Weak areas along the ends of your hair cause it to split and
Split Ends
• Possible Regimen:
– Choose a moisturizing shampoo and conditioner from the
same brand.
– Choose a protein conditioner and a deep conditioner.
– Wash your hair twice a week.
– Use the moisturizing shampoo and conditioner once a
week and the moisturizing shampoo followed by the deep
conditioner once a week.
– Once every 6-8 weeks wash with the moisturizing
shampoo followed by the protein conditioner and deep
– After each washing apply a moisturizer of your choice
followed by an oil. If your hair tends to feel dry choose a
water-based moisturizer and a polar oil.
• The most distinguishing feature of a shampoo
is its cleansing ability, which is primarily
determined by its surfactant content.
Surfactants are cleaning agents designed to
remove impurities such as dirt, oil, and other
debris from the hair.
• Sulfates are surfactants commonly used in today’s shampoo
formulas to lift product residues from the hair and scalp.
Sulfate-based ingredients always contain some version of
the word sulfate on the ingredients list.
• Ammonium lauryl sulfate and ammonium laureth sulfate
are harshest and tend to be the best cleanser, followed by
sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate. TEA
laureth sulfate and sodium myreth sulfate are gentler
sulfate detergents.
• Sulfate shampoos literally strip the hair, removing not only
undesirable product buildup but also your hairs natural oils
needed for your hair to remain supple.
• Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAP-B) is a popular secondary
surfactant in sulfate-free shampoos and is better for use on
black hair.
• Look for shampoos with a good lathering
ability. Superior lathering and foaming
enhances the spreadability of shampoo
product throughout the hair. Strong lather is
an indication that hair is clean and that no
products or debris are present to reduce the
lather. Also, lather makes shampoo products
easier to work through tightly coiled hair,
reducing the need for manipulation.
• There are 3 main types of shampoo:
– Moisturizing- Moisturizing shampoos, especially those that
are sulfate-free, cleanse the hair gently without stripping it
bare of natural oils. Many black hair products contain oils
such as petroleum, petrolatum, and mineral oil which
provide sheen or shine to the hair giving the appearance of
moisture. In the absence of truly moisturizing ingredients,
the best these oily products can do is supply the
appearance of moisture but aren’t actually moisturizing.
Over time these oily products can lead to chronic dryness.
Oils and moisturizers must never be confused for one
another. Oils create a barrier around the hair fiber,
preventing moisture from entering or exiting the shaft.
• 3 main types of shampoo:
– Clarifying shampoo (sulfate)- If your moisturizing shampoo
isn’t removing enough residue, upgrade to a clarifying
shampoo. Sulfate-free shampoos are good for weekly
cleansings because they’re very gentle. However, for
stubborn heavy product residues you may need something
stronger. Product build-up has occurred if: your shampoo
is not lathering as well or seems to not be working in
general, your hair and scalp feel coated your hair feels limp
and flat, with less body and movement, or you are getting
unexplainable hair breakage, despite balancing protein
and moisture in your regimen. These are best used about
once a month and are usually clear colored because they
lack the cloud-colored, opaque ingredients that typically
add softness to the hair.
• 3 main types of shampoo
– Chelating shampoo- necessary to remove mineral
deposits from the hair. Chelating shampoos work
on a deeper level, affecting the hair’s bonding
structure. Chelating shampoos are more potent
than clarifiers because they work below the
surface of the hair shaft. If your experiencing
heavy product buildup, clarify before you chelate.
A clarifying shampoo might be strong enough to
remove heavy residue so a chelating shampoo is
• Conditioners are water-based, low-pH
products that are added to the hair after
shampooing to smooth and soften the hair
cuticle. They contain humectants,
moisturizers, oils, and small amounts of
proteins to improve the overall quality of the
• Cationic ingredients- work together to improve
the hair’s shine, sheen, and pliability. 2 main
ones: cationic surfactants and cationic polymers
– Cationic polymers- They add structure and thickness
to the hair. They also improve manageability and
reinforce existing curl patterns in natural hair.
Polysaccharides and proteins make up the largest
group of natural cationic polymers. The
polysaccharides commonly used in conditioners are
chitin, cellulose, and cellulose derivatives such as
hydroxyethyl cellulose.
• Types of Conditioners:
• Instant Conditioners- Thin and lotion-like. These watery
products generally are best suited for those with fine or
oily hair and are the best “rinse-out” conditioners to
leave in. Because of their high water content and the
large molecular size of their ingredients these
conditioners only coat the outer parts of the hair shaft
and do not deep condition well. They’re best suited for
those with fine hair who require a conditioner formula
that does not deposit cationic substances too heavily on
the fiber. They’re also great for daily washers, those who
work out, and those who conditioner wash their hair.
• Cream-Rinse Conditioners- These contain a large
amount of cationic and shaft-smoothing ingredients
such as silicones, oils, and emollients, all of which
support hair detangling. These conditioners work
well for protecting hair against damage from heat
styling that may follow a shampoo and conditioning
• Deep Conditioners- These contain a concentrated
mixture of cationic, moisture-boosting elements
and proteins to both reinforce the hair cuticle and
impart moisture to the strand. The proteins in the
formula ensure that the hair retains the moisture
it receives and secures it deep within the fiber to
support the hair until the next deep-conditioning
treatment. These should be used once a week on
damaged hair and hair that is just beginning a
new hair regimen
• Moisturizing Conditioners- Moisturizing conditioners
work to increase the moisture content of the hair
and improve its elasticity. They smooth the cuticle
and soften the hair, improving its manageability and
eliminating frizz. They contain a high percentage of
cationic surfactants and polymers, which boost the
moisture content of the hair shaft and reduce and
neutralize charges along the strand.
• Protein Conditioners- These conditioners
temporarily rebuild the cuticle layer of the
hair shaft by filling in areas of weakness along
the strand and often contain very few
additional conditioning agents. The molecules
in basic protein conditioners are too large to
fully penetrate the hair shaft. Thus, the hair
retains the strengthening properties of these
protein conditioners for about 7-10 days
• Leave-In Conditioners- They come in both a cream
and liquid form. Creamy leave-ins are best for thick,
coarse hair. Sprays are more suitable for finer hair
types. Leave-in sprays and mists are great for
touching up and reinvigorating natural hair curls and
coils throughout the day. The best way to achieve
crisp, bold curls and coils on textured hair is to apply
a leave-in conditioner product to the hair while it is
sopping wet. Spray based products are superior
moisture boosters for relaxed, braided, sewn-in, or
twisted styles.
• Moisturizers support the hair’s infrastructure by
replenishing internal water and other essential
elements that have been lost naturally to styling,
chemical processing, and coloring.
• Moisturizers come in the form of light sprays,
creams, custards, pastes, and puddings. Sprays
work well for those with fine hair or braided
styles. Heavier creams and custards are generally
best for those with thicker, coarser hair.
• Good moisturizers will always contain water as a
first ingredient. Water is the ultimate moisturizer.
However, water tends to enter and leave the hair
fiber as it pleases. As a result, additional
moisturizing agents, such as humectants, are
• Humectants draw moisture from the surrounding
air and bring it to the hair or skin. Too much
humectants can leave the hair with a sticky or
tacky, coated feel if applied too heavily- honey is
a common humectant
• Emollients are lubricating film-producing ingredients that
fill in cracks along the cuticle surface. They can be water or
oil-based and include fatty alcohols like cetyl alcohol and
• Occlusive agents are product ingredients that block the
entry and exit of water through the cuticle. Common
examples include petrolatum, mineral oil, waxes, other oils,
silicones. They’re responsible for most of the shine
moisturizers provide. They can often leave a heavy film on
the hair fiber though. When allowed to buildup, they can
prevent necessary moisture from entering the hair shaft.
Petrolatum is the worst offender and creates the strongest
moisture barrier. Lanolin, mineral oil, and silicones follow
petrolatum in strength in that exact order.
• Black hair moisturizers should always have water
as a first ingredient and very minimal occlusive
• The best times to apply moisturizing products are
just before bed, prior to combing or manipulating
the hair, before outdoor activities, and after
you’ve rinsed out a conditioner or leave-in
conditioner during your normal
shampoo/conditioner regimen.
• For those with fine hair, leave-in conditioners
often work well as water-based moisturizers
• Seal in your moisturizer with an oil. The heavier
the oil, the stronger the seal will be and the
longer it will last.
• Oil-based moisturizers are preferred for naturals
who press or straighten their hair, or anyone who
sets their hair. Water-based moisturizers will
always cause the hair to revert. A moisturizer
with a higher synthetic oil or silicone content will
better seal the hair against intrusion from
external moisture and humidity in the
surrounding air.
• Petroleum-based oils such as petrolatum and
mineral oil (liquid petroleum) along with
silicones comprise the synthetic oil group.
Since these oils’ molecules are too large to
penetrate the hair fiber they form a film on
the hair fiber. Since they’re non-polar and
hydrophobic, these oils are unable to bind to
the hair’s keratin proteins.
• Oils derived from plants, flowers, seeds, and
fruits are healthier oils to choose. They form
light, semi-permeable films on the exterior of the
hair cuticle to help seal in moisture.
• Polar oils offer the most permeable oil seals As
sealants, they protect well against internal
moisture exit and external moisture entry. They
offer the greatest flexibility for black hair. Some
examples of polar hair oils include coconut oil,
almond oil, sunflower seed oil, argan oil, and
castor oil.
• Alternatives to oils include serums and
– Serums are finishing products that add shine,
manageability, and often layers of heat protection
to the hair. These products contain silicone
ingredients, such as dimethicone, that coat the
hair strands and reduce friction between the
cuticle scales of neighboring hairs. Since they’re
generally lighter than oils, they are the sealant of
choice for those with frizz-prone hair or those
who wear straight styles or roller sets.
– Hair butters are thick, semi-solid, wax-like
products that offer an alternative texture to
traditional oils, Butter products work well for
those with hair types that require products with a
bit more weight or have difficulty staying
moisturized. Natural butter products are extracted
from plant seeds or made directly from other oils
combined with a thickener.
• Shampoo lathering ingredients:
– A class of surfactants called foam boosters
enhances the thickness of shampoo lather.
Common foam boosters: cocomidapropyl betaine,
cocamidapropyl hydroxysultaine, lauramide oxide,
lauramide diethanolamine (DEA), Cocamide
diethanolamine (DEA), and cocamide
monoethanolamine (MEA).
• Clarifying Shampoo
• Common ingredients in clarifying shampoos include acetic acid, EDTA,
sodium citrate and trisodium phosphate. These ingredients are are
deep cleansers, degreasers, chelators (mineral-deposit removers), and
pH balancers.
• Chelating Shampoo
– The ingredient EDTA is a common chelating ingredient that
latches on to minerals and removes them as the hair is
rinsed. Sodium citrate and trisodium phosphate are other
common ingredients in chelating shampoo formulas. A few
less common ones are disodium EDTA, EDTA, HEDTA, oxalic
acid, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, sodium oxalate,
TEA-EDTA, tetrasodium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, and
trisodium HEDTA.
• Conditioners-cationic surfactants
– quartenium-22, quarternium-26, and PPG-9
diethylmonium chloride. These ingredients
deposit themselves minimally and leave very little
• Conditioners- cationic polymers
– celluloses, polyquarternium-4, polyquarternium
7, polyquarternium-10, polyquarternium 11,
polyquaternium 24, polyquaternium 29, and
polyquaternium 44.
• Protein Ingredients–
Amino aicds
Animal protein
Milk protein
Soy protein
Wheat protein
• Moisturizing Ingredients
Alpha hydroxyl acids
Cetearyl alcohol
Cetyl alcohol
Glyceryl triacetate
Oleic acid
Palmitic acid
• Moisturizing
Propylene glycol
Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
Sodium PCA
Stearic acid
Stearyl alcohol

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