Case Study (ZigBee) -System Model

Report
EE578 Case Study:
Abdul-Aziz .M Al-Yami
Khurram Masood
October 23th 2010
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Motivation
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
A Few Sensor Implementations
WSN Types
WSN Applications
WSN Standards
ZigBee Specifications
ZigBee and Other Wireless Technologies
System Model
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The oil and gas industry includes processes for exploration,
extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing petroleum
products.
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The largest volume products of the industry are fuel, oil and
gasoline (petrol).
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Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products,
including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and
plastics.
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As the demand for fossil fuels continues to grow, oil and gas
companies will have to develop new technologies and improve
operations in order to increase productivity and expand on their
current abilities
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained worldwide attention in recent years,
particularly with the rapid growth in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
technology which has facilitated the development of smart sensors.
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These sensors are small, with limited processing and computing resources, and a battery is
the main power source in a sensor node.
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These sensor nodes can sense, measure, and gather information from the environment
and, based on some local decision process, they can transmit the data to the user.
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Since the sensor nodes have limited memory and are typically deployed in difficult-toaccess locations, a radio is implemented for wireless communication to transfer the data to
a base station.
Finger Tip Sensors
Smart Its Project
Tiny Heart
Capsule Endoscope
JPL Sensor
A Bee Tracker
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There are two types of WSNs in terms of connectivity:
Structured and
unstructured.
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An unstructured WSN is one that contains a dense collection of sensor nodes.
Sensor nodes may be deployed in an ad hoc manner into the field. Once
deployed, the network is left unattended to perform monitoring and reporting
functions.
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In a structured WSN, all or some of the sensor nodes are deployed in a preplanned manner.
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In the unstructured WSN, network maintenance such as managing connectivity
and detecting failures is difficult since there are so many nodes.
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The advantage of a structured network is that fewer nodes can be deployed with
lower network maintenance and management cost. Fewer nodes can be
deployed now since nodes are placed at specific locations to provide coverage
while ad hoc deployment can have uncovered regions.
*Source: Wireless sensor network survey by Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal
*Source: Wireless sensor network survey by Jennifer Yick, Biswanath Mukherjee, Dipak Ghosal
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Wireless sensor standards have been developed
with the key design requirement for low power
consumption.
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The standard defines the functions and
protocols necessary for sensor nodes to
interface with a variety of networks.
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Some of these standards include IEEE 802.15.4
(ZigBee), WirelessHART , ISA-SP100
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ZIGBEE originally stood for: Zonal Intercommunication
Global-standard, where Battery life was long, which was
Economical to deploy, and which exhibited Efficient use
of resources.
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The IEEE 802.15.4 standard was completed in May 2003.
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The ZigBee specifications were ratified on 14 December
2004.
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The ZigBee Alliance announced public availability of
Specification 1.0 on 13 June 2005.
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Much research is still going on with ZigBee.
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Low data rate
Low power consumption
Small packet devices
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Operates in Unlicensed Bands
ISM 2.4 GHz Global Band at 250kbps
868 MHz European Band at 20kbps
915 MHz North American Band at 40kbps
Source: http://www.zigbee.org/en/about/faq.asp
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Environmental Monitoring
Agricultural Monitoring
Home Automation Still on Horizon
Central Control Room
(CCR)
Gateway
(G)
Router
(R)
Gateway
(G)
Anchor
Router (R)
Router
(R)
S
S
S
S
S

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