Scholarly Writing Presentation

Report
Scholarly Writing (APA Writing Style)
Graduate Program Orientation
Arlene Kent-Wilkinson RN, CPMHN(C) BSN, MN, PhD
www.usask.ca/nursing
University of Saskatchewan
Academic Health Science Centre 2013
E Wing
Scholarly Writing (APA Writing Style)
Presentation Outline
• Scholarly writing in 1 hour
• Start your own database or file of your topic references
• A-Z total references and Topic References
• Remember that scholarly writing is a “process over time”
• Power point on Scholarly writing
• Selected References & Websites
Handouts (attached files)
• Scholarly Writing Presentation on Selected References (powerpoint)
• APA Tips #1-30 & APA Level of Headings
• Sample paper (outline)
• Sample paper (correct) & Sample paper (common mistakes)
Scholarly Writing (APA Writing Style)
Selected References
• Scholarly Writing
• APA Writing Style
• Writing for Publication
• References Management Tools
• Grammarly
The Art and Science of Scholarly Writing (1)
Dusick, D. M. (2011). The art and science of scholarly writing. Orlando, FL: Walden University.
According to the Writing Center at Walden University (2009)
 Scholarly writing is a type of writing rather than a level of writing (there is no hierarchy in
writing genres). Scholarly writing isn't better than journalism, fiction, or poetry; it is just a
different category. As with any type of writing, scholarly writing has traditions and
expectations that you know about only if you read or write in that style.
Scholarly writing is writing a paper for a scholarly audience rather than a general audience.
Styles of formatting:
 American Psychological Association (generally referred to by the acronym APA)

(many manuscripts and dissertations in psychology, education, business, and the social sciences)
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Chicago Style (books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications)
MLA (literature, arts, and the humanities)
Turabian (higher education in many subjects)
Kent-Wilkinson, 2012
5
The Art and Science of Scholarly Writing (2)
Dusick, D. M. (2011). The art and science of scholarly writing. Orlando, FL: Walden University.
Science of Scholarly Writing
The science of scholarly writing consists of:
(a) selecting a topic worthy of scholarly
research,
(b) compliance with a scholarly manual (e.g.,
APA style);
(c) a clear understanding of the mechanics of
writing, i.e., proper grammar; and
(d) basic adherence to the steps of the
scientific method.
Art of Scholarly Writing
The art of scholarly writing is more elusive to
define but just as essential to a well-written
article.
The art of writing in a scholarly tone is based
on:
(a) clarity
(b) brevity
(c) significance
(d) eloquence
(e) organization
(f) overcoming writers’ block
The Art and Science of Scholarly Writing (3)
Dusick, D. M. (2011). The art and science of scholarly writing. Orlando, FL: Walden University.
APA Publication Manual (2010) includes five sections for careful review:
Section 1 covers the basics of “writing for the Behavioral and Social Sciences” (p. 9).
Section 2 details “Manuscript Structure and Content” (p. 21). [sample paper, p. 41-59]
Section 3 is a must for every author: “Writing Clearly and Concisely” (p. 61).
Section 4 details “The Mechanics of Style”, and covers punctuation, spelling, capitalization, italics,
abbreviations, and more (p. 87).
Section 5 presents the guidelines on presenting results in tables and figures.
Recommendation
Strunk, W. Jr., & White, F. B. (1999). The elements of style (4rd ed.). Location?: Longman.
 eight specific guidelines
 one of the best books of writing ever written
The Art and Science of Scholarly Writing (4)
Dusick, D. M. (2011). The art and science of scholarly writing. Orlando, FL: Walden University.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Make the paragraph the unit of composition (avoid one-sentence paragraphs, and ensure
paragraphs contain meaningful concepts),
Use active voice (active voice means that the subject of the sentence is doing the action, as in
participants responded to the survey),
Put statements in positive form (for example, 30% of those contacted responded as opposed to
70% did not respond),
Use definitive, specific, concrete, language (some words and phrases to avoid include good, bad,
perfect, ideal, seemingly, would, seem to show, in terms of, based on, in light of. Prefer words
and phrases that clearly illustrate your point),
Omit needless words (if you can eliminate words in a sentence without changing the meaning,
do so),
Avoid a succession of loose sentences (long convoluted sentences confuse the reader),
Express co-ordinate ideas in a similar form (as, for example, in this list, each item begins with a
verb),
Keep related words together (for example, ensure that adjectival phrases immediately follow the
nouns they modify).
The Art and Science of Scholarly Writing (5)
Dusick, D. M. (2011). The art and science of scholarly writing. Orlando, FL: Walden University.
9.
10.
Of course, plagiarism is absolutely not allowed. You may not, under any circumstances, use
another author’s words without quoting the exact source. But there are specific words and
phrases that are common to scholarly studies that you may use with impunity.
Typical phrases include
(a) the purpose of this study is to . . . and
(b) the results indicate the null hypothesis that was/was not rejected.
Follow the Steps of the Scientific Method
There are essentially five steps in any scientific study:
 Step 1 Identify the problem and explicate the purpose of the study
[Conduct a detailed literature review to give you a thorough understanding of the research topic]
 Step 2 Develop the research question(s), and if appropriate, research hypotheses
 Step 3 Identify the appropriate design and methodology of the study
 Step 4 Collect and analyze your data
 Step 5 Interpret the results
A Guide to Scholarly Writing in Nursing
Hallas, D., & Feldman, H. R. (2006). A guide to scholarly writing in nursing. Retrieved from
www.nsna.org/.../0/.../imprint_sept06_backschool_hallas-feldman[1].pdf
Why is it Important for Nursing Students to
Write in a Scholarly Style?

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Document plans-of-care for clients using the
nursing process, clearly and concisely
Ability to write in a scholarly style an essential
skill for nursing graduates
Writing well is a prerequisite for the pursuit of
graduate nursing education.
Critical thinking
Graduate Level

All nurses have the potential to contribute to the
scientific body of knowledge in the nursing
profession.
APA Writing Style
Format
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Title Page
Abstract
Introduction
Literature Review
Searching the Internet
Types of Papers
Citing the Woks of Others
References
Tables & Figures
Conclusion and Recommendations
Introduction to Scholarly Writing
Tornquist, E. (2006). Introduction to scholarly writing. In J. M. Phillips & C. R. King (Eds.),
Advancing Oncoloogy Nursing Science (chapter 20, pp. 437-448). The Oncology Nursing Society.
Scholarly writing
 May be enjoyable to some… not easy
 Writing is complex and difficult, only way to learn to do it well is to begin
 Keeping a Notebook
 Selecting a topic
 Making an outline
 Writing a first draft
 The beginning
 The middle
 Involvement in writing
 Rewriting, Revising, and Editing
 Revision for Clarity and Coherence
 Editing: The Fine Points of Writing
Basic Tips about Writing a Scholarly Manuscript
Lambert, V.A., Lambert, C. E., & Tsukahara, M. (2003). Basic tips about writing a scholarly
manuscript. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5(1) 1-2. Retrieved from
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1442-2018.2003.00137.x/full
doi: 10.1046/j.1442-2018.2003.00137.x.
As editors of Nursing & Health Sciences, Lambert, Lambert, & Tsukahara (2003) were often asked
for some basic tips:
 Writing a title that poorly reflects the essence of the content
 Failure to capture the reader's attention in the early sections of the manuscript
 Failure to produce what was promised in the introductory section of the text
 Failure to develop ideas to completion
 Lack of focus and direction of the presentation of ideas,
 Complex and incomprehensible sentence structure
 Lack of logical flow to the content presented
 Failure to logically link the content between sentences and between paragraphs
 Attention to detail; accepting critique; undertaking numerous rewrites
(Lambert, Lambert, & Tsukahara, 2003)
Guidelines for writing scholarly papers (1)
Moser, J. (2012). Guidelines for writing scholarly papers. Department of History and Political
Science, Ashland University. Retrieved from http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/papers.html
Basic Structure:

The introductory paragraph should engage the reader’s interest by setting out clearly the question that the
paper is attempting to address, how you plan to address it, and why it is worth addressing in the first place;

The thesis statement is a summation of your main point; this should generally appear at the end of the
introductory paragraph;
Background information, basic material about the subject, to provide context for the reader;

The real “meat” of your paper will be the actual points of discussion. These will be a series of paragraphs that
support your thesis statement, with each point occupying one or two paragraphs, depending on the essay’s
overall length;

One of the hallmarks of good writing is the ability to move back and forth smoothly between general
statements and concrete details. Each paragraph should start with a generalization—sort of a miniature thesis
statement; and

The concluding paragraph should flow logically from the rest of the essay, but it should be more than simply a
restatement of what you have done. For a paper of more than three or four pages, you might want briefly to
summarize your main points. The concluding paragraph might also offer some guidance for action. The rest of
the paragraph should provide specifics to back it up. Ideally, your conclusion should convince the reader that he
has not been wasting his time, and that there is something that he can take away from your essay.
Guidelines for writing scholarly papers (2)
Moser, J. (2012). Guidelines for writing scholarly papers. Department of History and Political
Science, Ashland University. Retrieved from http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/papers.html
Things to Avoid:
Contractions:

Words like “didn’t,” “couldn’t,” and “wouldn’t”
Passive Voice:


Active Voice: “Washington chopped down the cherry tree”
Passive Voice: “The cherry tree was chopped down by George Washington.” [wordy & clumsy]
First or Second Person:

In scholarly writing, the author is assumed to have “distance” from his or her subject. You should therefore
write as an outside observer, not a participant, and you should treat the reader in the same way. This means
that pronouns such as “I,” “we,” or “you” are inappropriate.
Incomplete Sentences:

Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, unless it is part of a direct quote. There are no other
exceptions to this rule.
Guidelines for writing scholarly papers (3)
Moser, J. (2012). Guidelines for writing scholarly papers. Department of History and Political
Science, Ashland University. Retrieved from http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/papers.html
Things to Avoid: (cont.)
Imprecise Language:


Avoid words like “good” She was a “good” leader.
Better to say: She was a “strong” leader; she was an “effective” leader
Slang:
“bumped off” – to describe a “killing”

“Bees knees”
Words Out of Proper Proximity:
 “Witnesses described the thief as a six-foot-tall man with a mustache weighing 190 pounds.”
Excessive Wordiness:


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do not write “time period,” when either “time” or “period” will suffice.
do not write “due to the fact that,” when a simple “because” will do.
Guidelines for writing scholarly papers (4)
Moser, J. (2012). Guidelines for writing scholarly papers. Department of History and Political
Science, Ashland University. Retrieved from http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/papers.html
Things to Avoid: (cont.)
Excessive Quotations:
Often writers who have yet to develop their own “voice” have a tendency to use a lot of direct quotes from
other authors.
Dumb Mistakes

confusing “its” with “it’s,” “there” with “they’re” or “their,” and “who’s” with “whose.”

subjects must agree in number with verbs, and pronouns with their antecedents;

Example: ” “Each of them had their own ideas” is wrong. “Each of them had his [or her] own ideas” is correct.
Plagiarism

Avoiding plagiarism means citing every single source that you used in writing a paper—and “use” means draw
any sort of fact (except those which are common knowledge) or interpretation.

Guidelines for writing scholarly papers (5)
Moser, J. (2012). Guidelines for writing scholarly papers. Department of History and Political
Science, Ashland University. Retrieved from http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/papers.html
Things to Do:




Use Proper Style for Notes and Bibliographies
Pay Attention to Tense
Use Page Numbers
Proofread
Scholarly Writing (1) by Robert E. Levasseur (2009)
Levasseur, R. E. (2009). Scholarly writing. St. Augustine, FL: Mindfire Press. Retrieved from
http://www.mindfirepress.com/Scholarly_Writing.html
To write at the doctoral level:
You must meet high standards of communication:
 content of your writing (i.e., your ideas per se) and the
 formatting of your document (i.e., how you present your ideas)
Both are equally important in doctoral writing
The areas to special attention to when you write are:
 Content
 Organization
 Grammar
 Style
Scholarly Writing (2) by Robert E. Levasseur (2009)
Content
 Reflect Higher-Order Thinking



doctoral writing must reflect the higher-order thinking skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
book report style, descriptive writing that demonstrates lower-order thinking skills, such as
knowledge, comprehension, and application, is not acceptable.
in short, your writing must demonstrate your ability to read and analyze the ideas of other
scholars, evaluate them, synthesize or integrate them into a meaningful whole, if necessary, and
use them in support of your own arguments

Get on the BOAT

doctoral writers use evidence from the literature, not rhetoric, to support their contentions.
objective evidence, as opposed to subjective opinion, is the coin of the realm in doctoral work
(cont.).
it is your responsibility to present the ideas of others from the literature as faithfully as you can,
based on your own critical reading of their work.
you must not distort their findings to make your point, even if you don’t agree with those
findings.



Scholarly Writing (3)
by Robert E. Levasseur (2009)
Organization (of paper)




overall structure needs to be clear to an intelligent, but uninformed reader
provide introductions and conclusions to each major section
provide clear transitions between parts or paragraphs
provide headings (i.e., trail markers) to keep your readers from getting lost
Grammar

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
no substitute for the basics or fundamentals - adheres to the rules of proper grammar.
adhering to the tenets of Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style or some other basic book of
proper English grammar is a requirement of good doctoral writing
writing in the active voice (biggest violations of the basics)
write in the active voice exclusively, avoid repetition, and choose the right word
the quality of ideas (content) is not sufficient to overcome inferior formatting in the form of poor
spelling, bad grammar, and incorrect APA reference citations and headings
Scholarly Writing (4) by Robert E. Levasseur (2009)
Style

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American Psychological Association (APA) style
The APA publication manual spells out in great detail the requirements one of the most
frequently followed sets of guidelines for scholarly writing.
Topics covered include the content and organization of a manuscript, grammar, bias in language,
punctuation, spelling, capitalization, the use of italics and abbreviations, bibliographic and in-text
reference citations.
You must adhere to the style guidelines specified by your institution, whether APA, Harvard,
Chicago, or some other, in all of your doctoral work.
For most students, learning APA is like learning a foreign language. While this is not necessarily an
easy thing to do, you have no choice but to buckle down and learn APA style if you want to
become a scholar. The sooner you do, the faster you will get through your doctoral program.
Scholarly Writing (5) by Robert E. Levasseur (2009)
Finding Your Voice
 avoid the passive voice
 avoid the use of first and second person pronouns
 no longer simply say “I” think this or “you” should do that
 support your arguments with evidence from the literature
 properly cite, to avoid charges of plagiarism
Sample A [Unacceptable]
 Some say that money is a universal motivator. It is argued by others that it depends on the needs
of the individual. I think the others are right, as I will explain in this essay.
Sample B [Acceptable]
 Some say that money is a universal motivator. Others argue that it depends on the needs of the
individual (Maslow, 1954). In this essay, the author will critically evaluate the arguments for and
against money as a universal motivator, and provide a rationale based on personal experience
and empirical research evidence in support of Maslow’s hierarchy-of-needs theory.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Sample B. cites as major work as evidence to support their opinion, more clear in making point that money is not
a universal motivator, more credible, gives credit where credit due, uses active voice in comparison to Sample A
which is passive voice.
Student to Scholar: The Guide for Doctoral Students
By Robert E. Levasseur PhD

Student to Scholar is a must if you
are currently a doctoral student or
expect to be one soon, and you
want to get the most out of the
time, money, and effort you invest
in your doctoral program

Written by a doctoral professor, this book
contains practical examples of high-quality
doctoral work, including a complete section of a
major paper written in correct APA style. Student
to Scholar is the book you need to enable you to
make the most of your doctoral journey.
From Student to Scholar you will learn:
• What it means to be a scholar
• How speed and quality are related
• Four key ways to accelerate your program
• Higher-order doctoral skills
• How to write a major paper
• How to annotate a journal article
• How to write a high–quality dissertation
• How to manage the dissertation process
• Other ways to accelerate your progress
Levasseur, R. E. (2006). Student to scholar: The
guide for doctoral students. St. Augustine, FL:
Mindfire Press.
Dissertation Research: An Integrative Approach
By Robert E. Levasseur PhD
Dissertation Research builds on the
insights, ideas, and advice provided in
Student to Scholar. It focuses on the
dissertation research process at the level
of detail necessary to enable any
doctoral student to understand and
successfully accomplish this capstone
project of the doctorate in a timely, cost
effective, and high quality manner.

Written by a university professor who
teaches research methods and who has
worked with dozens of students to help
them achieve their goal of earning a
doctorate.
From Dissertation Research
you will learn:
• The steps in the dissertation research process
• How to find a researchable dissertation topic
• How to develop an integrated research plan
• The structure and content of the proposal
• How to write a high–quality proposal
• How to conduct your dissertation research
• The structure and content of the dissertation
• How to write a high–quality dissertation
• The steps in the dissertation review process
• How to choose a dissertation committee
• How to manage the dissertation process
• How to publish your dissertation findings
Levasseur, R. E. (2011). Dissertation research:
An integrative approach. St. Augustine, FL:
Mindfire Press.
References – Scholarly Writing (1)
Bennett, P. (2010). How to write a paper. International Emergency Nursing, 18(4), 226- 230.
doi:10.1016/j.ienj.2010.04.003
Dusick, D. M. (2011). The art and science of scholarly writing. Orlando, FL: Walden University.
www. bold-ed.com/art.pdf
Hallas, D., & Feldman, H. R. (2006). A guide to scholarly writing in nursing. Retrieved from
www.nsna.org/.../0/.../imprint_sept06_backschool_hallas-feldman[1].pdf
Lambert, V.A., Lambert, C. E., & Tsukahara, M. (2003). Basic tips about writing a scholarly
manuscript. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5(1) 1-2. Retrieved from
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1442-2018.2003.00137.x/full
DOI: 10.1046/j.1442-2018.2003.00137.x.
Levasseur, R. E. (2006). Student to scholar: The guide for doctoral students. St. Augustine, FL:
Mindfire Press.
Levasseur, R. E. (2009). Scholarly writing. St. Augustine, FL: Mindfire Press. Retrieved from
http://www.mindfirepress.com/Scholarly_Writing.html
Levasseur, R. E. (2011). Dissertation research: An integrative approach. St. Augustine, FL: Mindfire
Press.
References – Scholarly Writing (2)
Moser, J. (2012). Guidelines for writing scholarly papers. Department of History and
Political Science, Ashland University. Retrieved from
http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/papers.html
Tornquist, E. (2006). Introduction to scholarly writing. In J. M. Phillips & C. R. King
(Eds.), Advancing Oncology Nursing Science (Chapter 20, pp. 437-448). The
Oncology Nursing Society.
References – APA (1)
American Psychological Association. (2009). Concise rules of APA style. The official pocket style guide
from the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA. Retrieved from
http://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4210004.aspx
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA.
ISBN: 1-4338-0560-X; ISBN 13: 978-1-4338-0560-8
American Psychological Association. (2010). APA style. What’s new in the sixth edition? Retrieved
from http://www.apastyle.org/manual/whats-new.aspx
Baggs, J. G., & Froman, R. (2009, August 31). Editorial. It's b-a-a-a-a-a-a-ck again, or how to live with
the new APA manual: Reprise for Edition 6 (p n/a). Research in Nursing & Health, 32(4), 1-3.
Retrieved from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/33706/home
doi: 10.1002/nur.20351
Levasseur, R. E. (2007). ABCs of APA style. St. Augustine, FL: Mindfire Press.
References – APA (2)
APA (2010) 6th Ed. Websites
 APA Guideline changes: http://www.aug.edu/elcse/2010APAGuidelineChanges.pdf
 End note update: http://www.endnote.com/support/enapa6thstyle.asp
 Frequently Asked Questions: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspxQuick notes:
 Tutorial: http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/whatsnew/index.htm
Websites Sample Papers
*APA Sample Paper http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/
References – Writing for Publication
Lawson, L. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2006). What do I do now, coach? What to do when your professor
says you have a publishable manuscript. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 2, 161-162, 164.
Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2010). Calling all presenters. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 6, 107-109.
Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2010). In praise of peer reviewers and the peer review process. Journal of
Forensic Nursing, 6, 159-161.
Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2011). Is impostor syndrome getting in the way of writing for the Journal of
Forensic Nursing? Journal of Forensic Nursing, 7, 57-59.
Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2011). Licking your wounds: Responding to the peer review process. Journal of
Forensic Nursing, 7, 157-158.
References – Management Tools
Endnotes http://endnote.com/
 Software tool for publishing and managing bibliographies, citations and
references on the Windows and Macintosh desktop
RefWorks http://www.refworks.com/
 An online research management, writing and collaboration tool -- is designed
to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of
information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.
References – Grammar
Grammarly.com
http://www.grammarly.com/?q=proofreading
Grammar checker. World’s most accurate grammar checker!
Checks for:
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Plagiarism
Contextual Spelling Check
Grammar
Punctuation
Style and Word Choice

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