LO1 Theory - EGA ICT

Report
Intro to R001
Understanding
Computer Systems
The examined Unit
Contents
LO1
1. Overview
2. Introduction to computer
systems
3. System Input and Output
Devices
4. System Software
5. Application Software
6. Storage and Connectivity
7. Assistive Technologies
LO2
• Data Capture Methods
Overview
• This Unit is broken down into 4 learning
Objectives (LO1)
– Understanding how ICT can be used to meet business
needs
– Knowing how to work with information and data to
meet specific business needs
– Knowing how ICT can be used to support business
working practices
– Understanding how legal, ethical, safety and security
issues affect how computers should be used
LO1: UNDERSTANDING HOW ICT CAN
BE USED TO MEET BUSINESS NEEDS
Activity 1- Independent Learning Task
• Use the worksheet provided to recap what we
have covered so far
– Answer the questions on the sheet
– You may use the internet to help you
Topics covered in LO1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Introduction to computer systems
System Input and Output Devices
System Software
Application Software
Storage and Connectivity
Assistive Technologies
Introduction to computer
systems
• Aims :
– To understand the difference
between portable and desktop
devices
– To identify and explain scenarios
where these would be best used
Desktop devices
• What is a desktop device?
– These are electronic devices that
remain in one place
• Examples:
– Desktop computers
– Printers
– Scanners
Portable devices
• What are portable devices?
– These are electronic devices that can be
carried easily
• Examples
–
–
–
–
–
–
Laptops
Netbooks
Mobile phones
Tablets (Ipad, Android Tablet)
handheld consoles (PSPs)
Media players (eg iPods, mp3 or video
players)
Activity
• Use presentation software to answer the
following questions; discuss advantages and
disadvantages. Include images
– Explain why a sales person at Top shop may prefer
to use a laptop rather than a desktop PC at work
– Explain why doctors at a hospital may prefer to
use a tablet rather than a paper based chart
– Explain why a games developer would prefer to
use a desktop PC rather than a laptop or tablet to
design games
Exit Task
• Write an exam question that you will give to
another student about what we have learnt
today
– The question must be worth 3 marks or more
example
on next
slide
Example exam questions
6. Jane has the following activities that she needs to perform:
– 21st March: 10am: visit Hallam’s Builders Ltd
– 21st March: 11.30am: visit John Kelvin at home
– 21st March: write report on investigation into noise pollution (need two hours)
– 22nd March: email report to my manager.
(a) What type of software is most suitable to help Jane organise these activities?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..[1]
(b) Explain two reasons why the software you have chosen is suitable for this purpose.
1………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………….. [4]
System Input and
Output Devices
• Aims:
– Understand the different
categories of devices
– Identify specific devices for each
category
– Know the different types of
printers, their advantages and
disadvantages
System Input and
Output Devices
• On a new page in your books
write the headings
• Date: Wednesday October 2nd
• Topic: System Input and Output
Devices
• Class work/Notes
System Input Output and Storage
Devices
• Hardware are the physical components of a
computer
• The fall under four categories
– Input
– Output
– Storage
– Processing
Computer System
A computer system has Input, Output & storage
devices
Input / Output: How it works
Input/output/Storage
INPUT
OUTPUT
STORAGE
Open the EGA ICT Wiki
Under R001 – Theory – Open the Device Sort PowerPoint
Answers
INPUT
OUTPUT
STORAGE
Input Devices
• An input device is used to put
data into a computer system
• Some examples include
– Keyboard
– Mouse
– Joystick
– Microphone
Input Devices
• Which Input Device would be
most suitable for the following
tasks?
– Surfing - clicking on links, icons
– Recording a song
– Writing a letter
– 'Face to face' communication
– Capturing photos for editing
Output Devices
• An output device is used to receive
data from a computer system that
has been processed- information
• Some examples include
– Monitor/screen
– Speakers
– Headphones
– printer
Storage Devices
• A storage device is used to store files
such as photos, movies, music,
documents, etc
• Some examples include
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CD ROM
DVD ROM
USB
External Hard Drive
Desktop Hard Drive
Floppy Disks
Magnetic Tape
Storage Capacities
• Some storage devices have a lot more capacity
than others.
– The floppy disk which is now obsolete could hold
1 .44 megabytes (MB) of data.
• Today the average USB drive can hold 4-8
Gigabytes (GB) of data.
Can you find?
• What is the maximum
storage capacity for...
– CDs,
– DVDs
– Blu-Ray
Answers
CD - 700MB
DVD - 4.7GB (4,812.8MB)
Blu-Ray- 25GB (25,600MB
Optical, Magnetic and Solid State
Storage
• Different storage devices use different
methods to save data
• The Four main methods are
– Optical
– Magnetic
– Solid State
– Cloud Storage
Optical Devices
• More memory on a disk means more information of image sound
can be added to a disk.
• Refers to using an optical device such as a CD or DVD to store data.
Data is written using a laser
The difference in capacity between a
CD, DVD & Blu ray is affected by the
thickness of the laser. As technology
has got better it has been possible to
write onto a disc with a thinner laser
meaning more information can fit onto
a disk.
This explains why the resolution of
images on a BLU RAY disk is much
better than on a DVD
Magnetic Devices
• Magnetic media uses magnetic
patterns to represent
information.
–
–
–
–
E.g VHS
Magnetic Tape
Floppy Disks
Cassettes
• They are still used in some
computer hard drives to store
data but no one really uses them
for films or music anymore
Solid State devices
• SSD drives are a
new thing replacing
the standard
magnetic hard
drives which had
mechanical parts
which often failed.
Hard Disk Drive
with Moving
Parts
Solid State Drive
with No Moving
Parts memory Chips
only
check out this video for more info
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjCmLJtITK4&NR=
1&feature=endscreen
Cloud Storage
R001- Pop Quiz
• Answer the sample exam questions
Printers
• Research
– What 3 types of Printers exist?
– Fill in this table in your books
Printer
Laser
Inkjet
Dot Matrix
Advantages
Disadvantages
Fill in the table on your books
Printer
Laser
Inkjet
Dot Matrix
Advantages
Disadvantages
SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
Do Now: What is System Software?
• Open the egaict wiki (egaict.wikispaces.com)
• Save this file:
– R001 -> Theory -> System Software Worksheet
• Research and answer the question in your
own words:
– Find the definition of System Software.
System Software
• Aims:
– To know the definition of system software
– To understand different types of system software
– To be able to identify different types and name
features of system software
Definition of System Software
• System software refers to the operating
system and all utility programs that manage a
computer.
www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/systems_software.html
Types of System Software
• Operating System
– (Windows, Mac OSX, Android etc)
• Utility Software
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Anti-Virus Software
Disk Cleaners
File Managers
Screensavers
Disk defragmenters
File encryption software
Backup Software
Archiving Software
• Drivers and Firmware
Can you
name any
examples?
Main Task: System Software
• Operating System
– (Windows, Mac OSX, Android
etc)
• Utility Software
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Anti-Virus Software
Disk Cleaners
File Managers
Screensavers
Disk defragmenters
File encryption software
Backup Software
Archiving Software
• Drivers and Firmware
• Research on the table on your
worksheet different types of
system software.
• Some examples have been
given to you
• State what type of system
software they are
• Explain why it is used
• Identify who creates the
software
• Give 3 features
• Extension: Find more examples
of system software
Independent Learning Task
• A small business has just ordered some new computers
for their office.
• The manager, Ms Smith, has heard of ‘System
Software’, but is unsure what it means.
• Write a letter to Ms Smith explaining what System
Software is and what system software you recommend
she should use on the new computers.
– Include reasons why
Plenary
• Give an example of System Software that you
use on your computer, phone or tablet
APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE
Do Now: Application Software
1. Copy the definition into your book.
Application software is software that
causes a computer to perform useful
tasks beyond the running of the
computer itself. Software applications
are often called programs, applications
or apps.
1. Write down some examples of
application software that you know.
Date: 16th
October 2013
Topic: R001understanding
computer
Systems
(theory)
Application Software
• Aims:
– To know the definition of application software
– To understand different types of application
software
– To be able to select the best software for different
use case scenarios
What is Application Software?
• Open the egaict wiki
–egaict.wikispaces.com
• Go to:
– R001 -> Theory -> Application Software
Worksheet
• Click on download and save this file
Types of Application Software
• Word processors
• Desktop publishing
software
• Spreadsheets
• Database
management software
• Multimedia software
• Gaming software
• Web browsers
• Apps for portable
devices
•
•
•
•
Presentation software
Photo-editing software
Video-editing software
Graphics manipulation
software
• Communications
software
• Social networking
• Chat rooms
• Instant messaging
• Email
• File transfer/file
sharing
Task: Application Software
Application Software TYPE
Word processors
Free VERSION
Paid VERSION
Microsoft Word
Desktop publishing software
Spreadsheets
Microsoft Excel
Database management software
Multimedia software
Video-editing software
Graphics manipulation software
Photoshop
Communications software
Presentation software
Gaming software
Web browsers
iCab
Plenary: Application or System
Software?
1. In your book explain the difference between
Systems (WHICH WE COVERED LAST WEEK) and Application
software.
2. Swap books and read the other person’s
description
3. Do you agree with what they have said? Is there
anything that they could have added?
STORAGE AND CONNECTIVITY
Storage and Connectivity
•Storage
– You need to know the
different types of
storage mediums
– Their advantages and
disadvantages
• Connectivity
• How you can
connect to a
wireless network
• How to keep your
network save
• how peripherals can
be connected a
computer
• How GPS tracking
can be used
Types of Computer Storage
• Digital computer storage comes in many
forms.
• They all fall into 1 of 4 categories
– Optical
– Magnetic
– Solid State
– Cloud
Optical Storage
Magnetic Storage
Solid State Storage
Cloud Storage
This leads us into connectivity
In order for cloud storage to work we need to be
able to connect up to the Internet
For this we need specific network devices called
routers and modems
How are network devices connected
• You need to know how to connect a
computing device to an existing
• wireless network using the following
– network name, i.e. Service Set Identifier (SSID)
– the use of security keys
– appropriate firewall settings for public and private
networks
How are peripheral devices
connected?
• You need to know how peripherals can be
connected to a computer device
– wired methods (e.g. USB, firewire)
– wireless methods (e.g. wifi, Bluetooth, infrared)
Task
• To get your familiar with networks and
connectivity you are going to complete the
networks sheet provided
CONNECTING DEVICES TO A
WIRELESS NETWORK
CONNECTING PERIPHERAL DEVICES
TO A COMPUTER SYSTEM
CONNECTIVITY DEVICES
Connectivity Devices
• These are devices that are used to connect
computer systems together
• Some devices are built into the computers
• Others are external and are used to connect
networks together or to access the Internet
Some examples
•
•
•
•
•
•
Routers
Modems
Switches
Network Cards (NIC)
Wireless NIC
Wireless Access Point (WAP)
ILT – Research (5 min)
• Answer the following Question
– What is the difference between a Router and a
Modem?
Router
 This device is used to share an internet
connection. It directs data traffic to the
correct computer or device
 It allows more than one person to use
an Internet connection within a home
or business.
 It tends to allow people to share your
connection wirelessly.
 To let people connect they need to
connect to a unique name for your
connection and enter a password.
Modem- Modulator Demodulator
 This device allows a computer to connect to the
Internet.
 It converts analogue signals to and from digital
signals
 It connects one computer to a server at your
internet provider.
 It allows the two computers to talk to each
other.
 Without a modem, a computer is not able to
connect to the internet.
 Most routers have in-built modems to allow you
to share your connection with multiple people.
Extra Info- Switches
A switch allows many
computers or devices to be
connected to a network
Used in larger networks
Network Cards
• Also known as Network Interface
Cards (NIC)
• A traditional network card is used
to allow a computer to be
connected to a network using a
cable
• Usually using and Ethernet cable
Wireless Network Card
• Connect a computer to a
network using radio waves
• Can be used for a company
network or for Wi-Fi connection
to the Internet
• Tablets and smart phones have
built in wireless Network cards
that allow the to connect to the
Internet using Wi-Fi
Wireless Access Points
• Used to connect devices to an
existing network using WiFi/wireless technologies
• Used in places like Starbucks,
libraries, and Airports
Exam Questions
1. State two advantages of using a laptop with a
wireless rather than a wired connection to
the Internet
[2 marks]
2. Why would several wireless access points be
needed in a cafe such as Starbucks? [2 marks]
HOW ORGANISATIONS CAN
MONITOR EMPLOYEES
Date: Thursday 7th November
Topic: How can employers use technology to monitor their
staff?
Starter activity:
1. What does the term GPS
stand for
2. List 2 examples of where you
have seen GPS technology
used in the real world
GPS tracking
•Global Positioning System
A satellite based system used by
GPS receivers to find positions
and times
tracks anything that is on the
surface or near the surface of
the Earth
Uses 4 GPS satellites to give an
accurate position of a GPS
device
Uses of GPS tracking
• Company vehicles or laptops can be
tracked by fixing a GPS tracking device
to them
• Some smart phones have tracking builtin GPS
– Apple – the Iphone and Ipad ‘find my
device’ uses this technology
• Most mobile phones will have not a GPS
receiver but not a tracking device
– Most mobile phones can be traced by
using the nearest mobile phone access
point (phone towers...)
Electronic Tracking
• This is usually used to track criminals
• They do not usually use GPS
• They are monitored by a base unit
which will alert the authorities if the
tag goes out of range
• These are similar to RFID (radioFrequency identification) tags
– They have to be monitored by receivers
and do not actively send data about
their location
Monitoring Internet Use and
Communications
• Companies have a responsibility to make sure
that the Internet is used by their employees
for the purpose of doing their job
• They must make sure it is also used
appropriately
• For this reason Internet and email usage in
companies are usually monitored
Monitoring Internet Use and
Communications
• Methods that are used to do this include
– Blocking certain websites within the company
– Scanning emails for viruses
– Scanning emails for inappropriate words and/or
content
– Automatically recording and backing up emails sent
and received using company based email accounts
* Some companies also record both internal and
external telephone conversations
Exam Questions
1. Describe two uses of GPS tracking in a
smartphone
[4 marks]
2. Give two reasons why a leisure centre would
want to monitor the use of the Internet by its
Employees
[2 marks]
HW
• Use the ICT website
– EGAICT.WIKISPACES.COM
• Read through the R001: LO1 and LO2 revision
slides in preparation for next half term
• Mock exams : Week beginning 2nd December
till the 13th December
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
Getting settled
• In your books write the following
– Date: Friday October 25th 2013
– Topic: R001- Theory and Notes
– Assistive technologies
Assistive Technologies
• Another word for this topic is
Accessibility
• This is when computer systems
are adapted in a way that would
allow users with a physical
disability to use them
• Assistive Technologies come
under two categories
– Devices
– Software and software settings
Devices
Device
Use
Puff-Suck switch
When the user blows or sucks , a switch is
activated and can be used to select an
item on screen or to send a command to
the computer
Braille Keyboard
The keys have Braille markings on them to
allow people with visual impairment to
feel the keys and choose one without
seeing it
Foot Mouse
Feet, instead of hands and fingers, are
used to press down on a foot mouse and
to move the pointer on screen
Software & Software Settings
Software or Setting
Use
Text to speech software
e.g. Balaboka, Natural reader, Read Clip
Text is read aloud to visually impaired
users who cannot see the screen properly.
Sounds are made, or words are spoken,
when commands are entered or carried
out
Speech to Text software
e.g. Siri, Windows Speech recognition
Spoken commands are translated to
actions that the computer carries out;
spoken words appear as text in a
document
Zoom
Areas of the screen display are enlarged
as a pointer is moved over the screen to
enable text or images to be seen more
easily
Exam Questions
1. Describe 1 hardware device that a visually
impaired person would need to be able to
type an email on her computer to send to an
estate agent
[2 marks]
2. Describe 1 special software that a visually
impaired person might use to compose an
email on her computer to send to an estate
agent
[2 marks]
HW
• Use the ICT website
– EGAICT.WIKISPACES.COM
• Read through the R001: LO1 and LO2 revision
slides in preparation for next half term
– Found under R001/Resources
• Mock exams : Week beginning 2nd December
till the 13th December
CONFIGURING AND CHOOSING
SYSTEMS
Choosing a system & configuration
• You will need to know how the
following factors can affect the
choice of a computer system
– cost
– availability
– user need
– data security
Choosing a system
• Computer systems in a business setting have
to
– Be suitable for the tasks required of them
– Meet the needs of the people using them
– Be configured to keep data secure
– Be ready for use when
required
Choosing a system
• When choosing a system for a business you
need to consider the type of business it is and
the types of tasks they will need to carry out
• For example, unless a company is involved in
game or video editing it would not necessary
to have a monitor with a very large highresolution monitor or high-speed processors
Data security
• This is very important to businesses
• Systems must allow for data security
by
– Ensuring data is not lost accidentally
– Ensuring data is not lost because of
faulty components such as hard disk
failure
• Must choose components for their
durability.
• Cheap does not always mean cost
effective
– Ensuring data can not be accessed by
unauthorised users
Configuring a typical office computer
•
These types of computers will have
– A suitable sized monitor that is
adjustable
– Ergonomic keyboards suitable for long
periods of typing
– A mouse
– Large and fast Hard disk capacity
– DVD.CD rewriter to load software and
make backups/archives
– Ability to connect to the network and
Internet (network card)
– Suitable desk space to hold all
components
Configuring Software
• Software in office scan be configured in
the following ways
– Changing the language
– Adjusting time and date
– Adjusting the screen resolution (useful for
some visual impairments, dyslexics and
colour blindness
– The size and colour of text on screen
– The arrangement of icons or window
displays
– Enlarging/zooming in on sections f the
screen
– Audible warnings- text to speech and
speech to text
Software for Business
• Most business would run some sort of
– Operating System
– A range of Application software
• They can choose to use one of two types of
software
– Paid for software e.g. windows, Microsoft Office
Suit
– Free/open Source software e.g. Linux
Question
• Why would a company opt for Buying
software rather than using a free version that
is available
Free vs. Paid for software
Free Software
Paid for Software
Advantages
Advantages
Saves money as you do not pay for
licenses
You know what you are getting will be of a
certain quality
Often comes with support available to
answer and fix any problems
Disadvantages
Disadvantages
Have to provide and pay for your own
technical support which can be expensive
They can be expensive to buy when you
have a large site as you have to pay for
site license to cover every device that
uses the software
Bespoke Vs Off the Shelf
Tailor made software
• Tailor made software (Bespoke) is software that is made to
the specifications of a client. In other words it is custom
made, bespoke, or 'tailored' to address a specific need. This
kind of software can be expensive as it has to be designed
by a team who are making software to specific needs for a
specific organisation.
• Off the shelf software is more general and produced for
the masses. Although it probably also costs a lot of money
to make, it is cheaper to buy because it can be bought by
anyone.
Exam Questions
1. A health and leisure centre has commissioned a
company to write some bespoke software for them to
help them create exercise programmes for their
clients
–
–
State one advantage to the company of doing this
State one disadvantage to the company of doing this
1. [4 marks]
2. What kind of specialised off the shelf software might
an estate agent need to help them show properties to
their clients?
3. [2 marks]

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