File - Telana N. Fairchild

Telana Fairchild, BSN, RN
University of Massachusetts- Worcester- Graduate School of Nursing
Background and Significance
 Contributes to several chronic and comorbid illnesses
 Health People 2020: weight reductions of 5-20%
 5-20% significantly decrease morbidity associated with
 NIHHS treatment guidelines from 1998
 Accepted manuscript for new guidelines
 2013 ≈78.4 million obese adults- slight decrease
Obesity: body mass index (BMI) (≥30kg/m2)
2012- 35.7% of adult US- an increase
2008 cost ≈ $147 billion
Mortality risk of BMI ≥ 35kg/m2 = 40-60%
WHO: national concern, all ethnicities, all
demographics, and all ages
 Preventable and modifiable condition
How does the Primary Care Provider guided behavior modification, transtheoretical model- stages of
change (TTM SOC), for diet and physical activity for the obese (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) adult patients (seventeen
years and older) compare to a standard commercial weight loss program, Weight Watchers (WW)
concerning weight loss of at least five percent in three months and maintenance for at least year?
Alexander, et al., 2011: Number of times each of the
“5A’s” were used during provider visits
Mitchell, et al., 2012: Insurance covered cost for
participants to attend WW for one year.
Weight loss
Motivational Interviewing
Weight Watchers is a registered trademark of Weight Watchers International, Inc.
Literature Search
Percent obese
 Databases: PubMed, Cochran Library, and Ovid
 Terms: “obesity AND motivational interviewing,” “obesity AND transtheoretical model,” “obesity AND
weight watchers,” “obesity treatment AND primary care,” and “obesity AND five A’s” (7,412)
Arranged 2%
Johnson, et al., 2008: TTM used to target multiple
behaviors vs no treatment
Total number of articles obtained using the search terms
Eliminated duplicate articles
Number of articles after deleting specific populations that
couldn’t be generalized to target population.
NIHHS Treatment Algorithm 1998
AHA/ACC/TOS Treatment Algorithm 2014
Eliminated studies during a review of the abstract that included specific
populations of subjects based on ethnicity, culture, or health condition
instead of target population
Number of articles using TTM SOC or similar behavioral
change model (MI, 5A’s), Provider/physician guided, or
WW or similar program as the independent variables
Pinto, et al., 2013: Weight change between behavior;
WW and combined
Number of articles after deleting duplicates
Number of meetings
Eliminated articles published prior to 2008, without available full text,
subjects other than humans, languages other than English, and ages less
than 17 years.
Weight change (kg)
Adult obesity in United States 1988-2012
Baseline I 12 Weeks
I 24 Weeks
I 48 Weeks
Eliminated studies which did not evaluate the target independent variables
Jebb, et al., 2011: Comparison of national guidelines
to WW
Fuller, et al., 2012: Cost analysis of Jebb, et al., 2011
Articles selected for further review
Eliminated studies which did not evaluate the target dependent variable
Weight loss was included as a dependent variable
After further review article found not to include weight loss and had poor
representative of the TTM
Articles for studies with strong levels of evidence, strong
sample sizes representative of the target population and
reliable and valid data measurements
Future Research
Articles eliminated based on poor design, weak level of evidence and
weak sample size
Newest literature search included additional studies with
strong levels of evidence, strong sample sizes
representative of the target population and reliable and
valid data measurements
Weight Watchers
General practice
Articles found with new search of the aforementioned process
 Target outcome should be weight reduction as there is proof this will lead to reduction of other chronic
illness and comorbidities
 Need to include all demographics and ethnicities
 For understanding weight loss maintenance, research should look at 5-10yrs
 If MI is researched use a tool to measure appropriate use and application of MI
 More focus now on cost as well, insurance companies need to consider covering cost of these visits or at
least reducing cost
 As a future provider:
55 year old gentleman
CPE- seven years ago
Lost sister this past month r/t MI
PMHx: None
SHx: None
Medications: None
Family Hx: heart disease, colon and breast CA, and
 Diet: fast food restaurant, skips breakfast, pasta, meat,
potatoes. Denies fruit and vegetables. Drinks soda and
coffee with cream and sugar. Limited water intake.
 Exercise: none, no interest.
 Today: BMI: 35kg/m2, B/P: 164/83 and total
cholesterol: 284.
 Dx: Obesity, HTN, HL
Level of evidence: I-VI, most II
Reliable internal validity
Bias unlikely
Target outcome 5-10% reduction
Population: Caucasian, females, 30-40’s,
BMI 35-38kg/m2
 New guidelines are supported
 MI and WW together
 Influential factors: willingness, adherence, and
accuracy, ethnicity, time, cost
 WW and number of session (adherence)
 Compared: WW ≥ MI
 Weight loss involves multiple behaviors
 Use of all 5 A’s
• Patient-centered treatment using MI
• Understand barriers
• Use WW program when possible
• Or use similar plan using nursing visits and
 Insurance companies need to cover cost
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For R.M.: referral to the WW program for weekly
sessions with PCP behavior guided modifications biweekly
until 10% weight loss is achieved. Needs weight reduction
of 30% from his current baseline achieve 10% reevaluate
his need and desire to continue his weight loss regimen
using MI and treat accordingly with the goal of another
10% until normal weight is achieved.

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