Persuasion Notes

Report
Speaking to
Persuade
Persuasion
The process of creating, reinforcing, or
changing people's beliefs or actions.
Ethics and Persuasion
 Make sure your goals are ethically sound
 Use ethical methods to communicate your
ideas
Degrees of Persuasion
Strongly
Opposed
Moderately
Opposed
Slightly
Opposed
Neutral
Slightly
in Favor
Persuasion involves any movement by a
listener from left to right
Moderately
in Favor
Strongly
in Favor
Mental Dialogue with the
Audience
The mental give and take between speaker
and listener during a persuasive speech.
Target Audience
The portion of the whole audience that the
speaker most wants to persuade.
Types of
Persuasive Speeches
 Speeches on questions of fact
 Speeches on questions of value
 Speeches on questions of policy
Question of Fact
A question about the truth or falsity
of an assertion.
Persuasive Speech on a
Question of Fact
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that an
earthquake of 9.0 or above on
the Richter scale will hit
California in the next ten years.
Main Points:
I. California is long overdue for
a major earthquake.
II. Many geological signs
indicate that a major
earthquake may happen soon.
III. Experts agree that a major
earthquake could hit
California any day.
Question of Value
A question about the worth,
rightness, morality, and so forth
of an idea or action.
Persuasive Speech on a
Question of Value
Specific Purpose:
To persuade my audience that
capital punishment is morally
and legally wrong.
Main Points:
I. Capital punishment violates
the biblical commandment
“Thou shalt not kill.”
II. Capital punishment violates
the constitutional ban on
“cruel and unusual punishment.”
Question of Policy
A question about whether a specific
course of action should or should not
be taken.
Persuasive Speech on a
Question of Policy
Specific Purpose:
To persuade my audience that our state should require
mandatory recertification of lawyers every ten years.
Main Points:
I. Many citizens are victimized
every year by incompetent
lawyers.
II. A bill requiring lawyers to
stand for recertification every
ten years will do much to help
solve the problem.
Fact, Value, or Policy?
 To persuade my audience that
poaching is threatening the
survival of animal species throughout
the world.
 To persuade my audience that strong
international action
should be taken to solve the problem
of poaching.
Fact, Value, or Policy?
 A federal law should be passed requiring
that trunk release systems be standard
on all new cars sold in the United States.
 If trunk release systems were standard
equipment on all cars sold in the United
States, we could save a number of
children’s lives each year.
Types of Speeches on
Questions of Policy
 Speeches to gain passive agreement
 Speeches to gain immediate action
Speech to Gain
Passive Agreement
The speaker’s goal is to convince the
audience that a given policy is desirable
without encouraging the audience to
take action in support of the policy.
Specific Purposes for
Speeches to Gain
Passive Agreement
 To persuade my audience that there should
be stricter safety standard on amusementpark rides.
 To persuade my audience that school
districts should not allow soft-drink
companies to stock their products in school
vending machines.
Speech to Gain
Immediate Action
The speaker’s goal is to convince the
audience to take action in support of a
given policy.
Specific Purposes for
Speeches to Gain
Immediate Action
 To persuade my audience to donate time to
become literacy tutors.
 To persuade my audience to vote in the next
presidential election.
Basic Issues of Policy Speeches
 Need
 Plan
 Practicality
Need
Is there a serious problem or need
that requires a change from
current policy?
Plan
If there is a problem with current policy,
does the speaker have a plan to solve the
problem?
Practicality
 Will the speaker’s plan solve the problem?
 Will the speaker’s plan create new and more
serious problems?
Organizing Speeches on
Questions of Policy
 Problem-solution order
 Problem-cause-solution order
 Comparative advantages order
 Monroe’s motivated sequence
Problem-Solution Order
Main point I:
Documents the existence of a problem.
Main point II:
Presents a solution to the problem.
Problem-Solution Order
Specific Purpose:
To persuade my audience that
the use of antibacterial
chemicals in household
products is creating health and
environmental problems.
Main Points:
I. The use of antibacterial
chemicals in household
products is a serious problem.
II. Solving these problems
requires a combination of
government and consumer
action.
Problem-Cause-Solution
Order
Main point I:
Main point II:
Main point III:
Documents the existence
of a problem.
Analyzes the causes of the
problem.
Presents a solution to the
problem.
Problem-Cause-Solution Order
Specific Purpose:
To persuade my audience that
the age for full motor-vehicle
driving privileges should be
raised to 18.
Main Points:
I. The number of accidents and
death involving teenage
drivers is a serious national
problem.
II. There are four main causes
of the problem.
III. We can help solve these
problems by raising the age
for full driving privileges.
Comparative Advantages Order
Each main point explains why a speaker's
solution to a problem is preferable to
other potential
solutions.
Comparative Advantages Order
Specific Purpose:
To persuade my audience that
the U.S. space program should
put greater priority on unstaffed
scientific missions.
Main Points:
I. Unstaffed scientific missions
are less costly than staffed
space flights.
II. Unstaffed scientific missions
provide more practical
benefits than staffed space
flights.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
A five-step sequence designed especially for
organizing persuasive speeches that seek
immediate action.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Attention:
Gain the attention of the
audience
Need:
Show the need for change
Satisfaction:
Provide a solution to the
need
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Visualization:
Intensify desire for the
solution by visualizing its
benefits
Action:
Urge the audience to take
action in support of the
solution

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