Passages 1 Unit 2

Unit 2 Mistakes and Mysteries
Listening “I’ll never do that again”
p. 10
 Listen to Frank talk about a bad decision he made.
Answer true or false.
 Frank and his neighbor were good friends.
True  Frank knew he was allergic to cats.
False  Frank marked his calendar to remember to feed the cat.
False  Frank forgot what time the train was going to leave.
True  Frank remembered to feed the cat on Saturday.
Grammar / Modal Verbs p. 11, 15
Past Tense Modal Verbs of Obligation
Fred had to feed his neighbor’s cat.
Fred was supposed to feed his neighbor’s
Fred needed to feed his neighbor’s cat.
Fred didn’t have to feed his neighbor’s cat.
Fred should have fed his neighbor’s cat.
What is the differences in these sentences?
In which sentences did the action happen?
Had to + verb
Had to expresses absolute obligation, there
was no choice
Don’t use must for obligation in the past!
I had to study last weekend.
Was / Were supposed to + verb
Expected obligation but unfulfilled
I was supposed to study last weekend.
Needed to + verb
It was necessary but there was choice to
do it
I needed to study last weekend.
Didn’t have to + verb
No obligation
I didn’t have to study last weekend
Should have + past participle (shouldₔ)
It was a good idea but not done
I should have studied last weekend.
 I shouldn’t have invited them.
a) I didn’t invite them.
b) I invited them.
 That was a secret! You weren’t supposed to tell anyone!
a) You didn’t tell anyone.
b) You told someone.
 We didn’t have to study for the test.
a) We forgot to study.
b) We were prepared for the test.
 I know Jane didn’t like my cooking, but she didn’t need to be
so rude about it.
a) Jane was rude to me.
b) Jane wasn’t rude to me.
Modal Verbs of Certainty
Why isn’t Paul in class today?
He must be sick.
He might be sick, but that’s
not why he’s absent. He left
Miami to go to Iowa.
Almost 100% sure – Must
My sister isn’t answering the phone. It’s
11:00, she must be asleep.
Past Tense – must have, can’t have,
*couldn’t have*
I didn’t know any of the answers on the
test. I couldn’t have passed.
Less than 50% sure – May, Could, Might
I don’t know why she isn’t answering the
phone. She could be taking a shower, or
she might be talking to someone else.
Past Tense – may have, could have,
might have
Modal Verbs of Obligation / Advise
You look so tired today! You
shouldn’t have gone to bed so
late. You must take a nap before
your test this afternoon. You
should remember this the nest
time you want to stay up late the
night before a test.
To express obligation, advice in the present,
future (Not Past) – must, have to, have got to,
had better
You must pay me back today! (obligation)
To express obligation, advice, or opinion in the
present, future or past – should
I loaned you $20 last week. You should
have paid me back by now! (obligation) You
should be ashamed of yourself. (opinion)
You should apologize and pay me back
tomorrow. (advise)
Modal Verbs – Past, Passive,
Past Passive
Modal + have
+ past
Modal +be
Modal + be +
Modal + have
been + past
Modal + have
been + present
Should have
Should be
Should be
Should have
been studied
Should have
been studying
He should
have studied
last night.
English should
be studied in
He should be
studying right
English should
have been
studied before
the University
program was
You should
have been
studying the
whole term.
Vocabulary / Problems p. 12
Deal with
Run into
a problem
Listening “Dealing with Problems”
p. 12
Aggravate it
Deal with it
Ignore it
jogging too
soon after
his injury
leaves old
cars in yard
/ makes
noise when
fixing them
Didn’t do
her share of
project /
Vocabulary / Belief p. 16
Not certain
Be certain
Be positive
Be sure
Know for a fact
Have a hunch
Listening “Unsolved Mystery” p. 16
 Listen to a radio program about a famous claim of alien
abduction in Canada. What did they say happened?
 Which facts do they mention?
 The Hills saw an object flying beside their car.
 Betty saw creatures looking at them from the object.
 The creatures spoke to the Hills in a strange language.
 Betty found pink powder on her dress the next day.
 The Air Force agreed that Betty saw a UFO.
 The doctors doubted the Hills’ story.
 The aliens looked just like creatures from a TV show.
 The trip took seven hours instead of four.

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