Unit 2 Mistakes and Mysteries Listening “I’ll never do that again” p. 10 Listen to Frank talk about a bad decision he made. Answer true or false. False Frank and his neighbor were good friends. True Frank knew he was allergic to cats. False Frank marked his calendar to remember to feed the cat. False Frank forgot what time the train was going to leave. True Frank remembered to feed the cat on Saturday. Grammar / Modal Verbs p. 11, 15 Past Tense Modal Verbs of Obligation Fred had to feed his neighbor’s cat. Fred was supposed to feed his neighbor’s cat. Fred needed to feed his neighbor’s cat. Fred didn’t have to feed his neighbor’s cat. Fred should have fed his neighbor’s cat. What is the differences in these sentences? In which sentences did the action happen? Cont… Had to + verb Had to expresses absolute obligation, there was no choice Don’t use must for obligation in the past! I had to study last weekend. Was / Were supposed to + verb Expected obligation but unfulfilled I was supposed to study last weekend. Cont… Needed to + verb It was necessary but there was choice to do it I needed to study last weekend. Didn’t have to + verb No obligation I didn’t have to study last weekend Should have + past participle (shouldₔ) It was a good idea but not done I should have studied last weekend. Practice I shouldn’t have invited them. a) I didn’t invite them. b) I invited them. That was a secret! You weren’t supposed to tell anyone! a) You didn’t tell anyone. b) You told someone. We didn’t have to study for the test. a) We forgot to study. b) We were prepared for the test. I know Jane didn’t like my cooking, but she didn’t need to be so rude about it. a) Jane was rude to me. b) Jane wasn’t rude to me. Modal Verbs of Certainty Why isn’t Paul in class today? He must be sick. He might be sick, but that’s not why he’s absent. He left Miami to go to Iowa. Cont… Almost 100% sure – Must My sister isn’t answering the phone. It’s 11:00, she must be asleep. Past Tense – must have, can’t have, *couldn’t have* I didn’t know any of the answers on the test. I couldn’t have passed. Less than 50% sure – May, Could, Might I don’t know why she isn’t answering the phone. She could be taking a shower, or she might be talking to someone else. Past Tense – may have, could have, might have Modal Verbs of Obligation / Advise You look so tired today! You shouldn’t have gone to bed so late. You must take a nap before your test this afternoon. You should remember this the nest time you want to stay up late the night before a test. Cont… To express obligation, advice in the present, future (Not Past) – must, have to, have got to, had better You must pay me back today! (obligation) To express obligation, advice, or opinion in the present, future or past – should I loaned you $20 last week. You should have paid me back by now! (obligation) You should be ashamed of yourself. (opinion) You should apologize and pay me back tomorrow. (advise) Modal Verbs – Past, Passive, Continuous Past Passive Continuous Past Passive Past Continuous Modal + have + past participle Modal +be +past participle Modal + be + present participle Modal + have been + past participle Modal + have been + present participle Should have studied Should be studied Should be studying Should have been studied Should have been studying He should have studied last night. English should be studied in school. He should be studying right now. English should have been studied before the University program was started. You should have been studying the whole term. Vocabulary / Problems p. 12 Aggravate Avoid Cause Deal with Identify Ignore Run into Solve a problem Listening “Dealing with Problems” p. 12 Ray Felipe Jennifer Aggravate it Deal with it Ignore it Started jogging too soon after his injury Neighbor leaves old cars in yard / makes noise when fixing them Didn’t do her share of school project / didn’t apologize Vocabulary / Belief p. 16 Certain Not certain Be certain Be positive Be sure Know for a fact Assume Bet Doubt Figure Guess Have a hunch Suppose suspect Listening “Unsolved Mystery” p. 16 Listen to a radio program about a famous claim of alien abduction in Canada. What did they say happened? Which facts do they mention? The Hills saw an object flying beside their car. Betty saw creatures looking at them from the object. The creatures spoke to the Hills in a strange language. Betty found pink powder on her dress the next day. The Air Force agreed that Betty saw a UFO. The doctors doubted the Hills’ story. The aliens looked just like creatures from a TV show. The trip took seven hours instead of four.