Gp_Purbashree - Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Prepared by:
Purbashree Sarmah(2014CEV2092)
Surya Sujathan(2014CEV2094)
Madhur Chachondia(2014CEV2586)
Ganga water facing water quality deterioration:
◦ River’s importance in Indian culture
◦ dense population residing at its banks
◦ faces several forced and unforced human activities
In the sites it was observed that the TVC values were relatively higher in
holy places (Sood et al., 2008)
In this review paper, effectiveness of Ultraviolet irradiation on coliform
bacteria inactivation in the Ganga water is reviewed.
Germicidal action mainly due to UV-C light on
Consists of UV reactors that efficiently delivers the
required dose for microbial inactivation.
The microbial response is given by the 1st order kinetic
Equation as shown below:
N0 = Concentration of infectious microorganisms before
exposure to UV light
N = Concentration of infectious microorganisms after
exposure to UV light
UV reactors made of open/closed channel vessels
◦ UV lamps
◦ lamp sleeves
◦ UV sensors
◦ temperature sensors
Figure1: Example of UV Disinfection
Equipment (USEPA, 2006, UV Disinfection
Guidance Manual; Severn Trent Services)
Various option from
different journals
UV Light Generation UV-LEDs,
and Propagation
high-pressure mercury
vapor lamp with side
glowing optical fiber,
LP, MP, PUV with
pulsed xenon source
UV Dose-Response
UV-LEDs with 10.8,
13.8, 56.9 mJ/cm2,
High-pressure mercury
vapor lamp with
17.2 mW/cm2, PUV
with 3 mJ/cm2
265nm, 280nm,
nm, 254 nm, 200nm,
270 nm
14 NTU, 0.67 NTU, 10
NTU, 0 NTU, 2.2 NTU,
6.5 NTU, 10.2 NTU
reduction up to 4)
PUV with pulsed xenon
glowing optical fibre
Pre treatment
PUV with 3 mJ/cm2
254 nm
Difficult to maintain
0-10 NTU
Water should be filtered Sedimentation,
the Filtration
required standard
other Sedimentation,
methods. Maintenance Filtration
is difficult
Our sample where E coli was present in maximum quantity of about 27CFU
if we apply all the best options we may get up to 4 log reduction.
To achieve better disinfection following may can be adopted:
◦ Optical fibre can be used to ensure uniform distribution within the
UV reactor.
◦ Pre treatment such as coagulation, sedimentation and filtration can
be adopted to reduce high turbidity and organic matter present in
Ganga water.
◦ UV reactors can be improved to make process more economical so
as to improve its popularity compared to chlorine disinfection.
Ample quantitative information is needed to study the effect of microorganism-related factors like :
◦ Different environmental species encountered in water
◦ DNA repair mechanism
◦ Differences in spectral sensitivity in various micro-organisms
Further research is required in accurate analysis of water flows and UV
intensity over UV reactors, using CFD so as to achieve simple, reliable
and cheap in situ process control systems.
Further research can be done on the optimum use of optical fibre to
achieve more economy.
UV disinfection is best method for disinfection as it requires no
chemical consumption thus:
Saves large scale storage space
Transportation and managing cost
Safety hazards related issues
High removal of 99.99% can be attained if used under optimum
operational conditions.
Does not give toxic byproducts such as trihalomethanes.
But it is not very cost effective compared to chlorine disinfection .
It cannot give any residual because of which it is more popular only for
POU systems.
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