PPT about Weather and climate

Report
WEATHER AND
CLIMATE IN YEMEN
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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE OF YEMEN
Because of the variations in its topography, Yemen has various
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climates. In the desert, summers are very hot, while in the mountains
the climate is much milder. The surrounding seas bring moist air
which results in sufficient rains for Yemen to be the most fertile region
in the Arabian peninsula Temperatures are generally very high in
Yemen, particularly in the coastal regions. Rainfall is limited, with
variations based on elevation. The highlands enjoy a temperate, rainy
summer with an average high temperature of 21 °C (69.8 °F) and a cool,
moderately dry winter with temperatures occasionally dipping below
0 °C (32.0 °F). The climate of the Tihamah (western coastal plain) is
tropical; temperatures occasionally exceed 54 °C (129.2 °F), and the
humidity ranges from 50 to 70 percent. Rainfall, which comes in
irregular heavy torrents, averages 130 millimeters (5.12 in) annually. In
Aden the average temperature is 25 °C (77.0 °F) in January and 32 °C
(89.6 °F) in June, but with highs often exceeding 37 °C (98.6 °F).
Average annual rainfall is 127 millimeters (5 in). The highest
mountainous areas of southern Yemen receive from 520 to 760 mm
(20.5 to 29.9 in) of rain a year. Some areas of the western highlands,
most notably Ibb and Ta'izz, receive from about 1,000–1,500 millimeters
(39.4–59.1 in) of rain each year. The capital, Sana'a, receives around
300 mm (11.8 in) a year, it is not uncommon for the northern and
eastern sections of the country to receive no rain for five years or
more. The Wadi Hadhramaut in the eastern part of Yemen is arid and
hot, and the humidity ranges from 35 percent in June to 64 percent in
.January. Yemen is dry in the east and humid in the west.
TOPOGRAPHY
Topography : Yemen is •
characterized by diversity of its
surface and therefore has been
divided into five major
geographic regions are:
1- THE COASTAL PLAINS
* The Coastal Plains : extend sporadically along the coast of Yemen, where
•
mountains and hills cut to reach directly into the sea in more than one place,
therefore, the territory of the coastal plain of Yemen on the plains include the
following: (Tihama plain – Tuban plain- - Mayfa'a Ahwar plain – Plain, the eastern
coastal province, located within al-Mahara).
The Coastal Plain region is characterized by a hot climate throughout the year with
little rainfalls ranging between 50-100 mm per year, but it is considered an
important agricultural region, especially the Tihama Plain due to the large valleys
that penetrate this region and into which the floods caused by rainfall on the
highlands.
•
REGION
* The Mountain Highlands Region: to the Gulf of Aden and
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resulted in the Highlands, including Popup confined basins
or mountain called Qiena fields, and mountains of this region
is among the highest in the Arabian Peninsula, where it
exceeds the average height in 2000, and go up to peaks of
more than 3500 m, reaching the highest peak 3666 m in Mount
Prophet Shuaib.
The line is the division of water in these mountains where the
water descends through a number of valleys east and west
and south, most important of these valleys: the valley of
Moore - abeed - - Rimah - and Wadi Rasyan. The water of
these wadis to the Red Sea. valleys draining into the Gulf of
Aden and the Arabian Sea: Valley Tuban, and bana and Wadi
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Wadi Hadramout.
Mountainous Basins Region: This region in the plains and basins in
the mountainous highlands, mostly located in the eastern part of the
water division line extending from the far north to the far south,
including: Dhamar, Mabar, Sana'a Basin, Amran and Saada.
•
3- PLATEAU AREAS REGION:
* Plateau Areas Region: : This region covers the •
eastern half of the country. Elevations decrease from
1, 200-1 ,800 m at the major watershed lines to 900 m
on the northern desert border and to sea level on the
coast. The climate in general is hot and dry, with
average annual rainfall below 100 mm, except in the
higher parts. Nevertheless, floods following rare
rainfall may be devastating
4- THE DESERT
* The Desert : Between the Yemen Mountain •
Massif and the Eastern Plateau lies the Ramlat
as Sabatayn, a sand desert. Rainfall and
vegetation are nearly absent, except along its
margins where rivers bring water from
adjacent mountain and upland zones. In the
north lies the Rub Al Khali desert, which
extends far into Saudi Arabia and is
approximately 500 000 km² in area. This sand
desert is one of the most desolate parts of the
world
5- THE ISLANDS
* The Islands: spread in the territorial waters of Yemen, Socotra
Island is considered the largest island in this archipelago,
which includes the addition to the island of Socotra Islands of
Samaha and to study and Abdul Kori Socotra is characterized
by abundant biodiversity of Socotra it contains about 680 plant
species and rare birds and animals .
many islands and its topography, climate and environment for
most of these islands lie in the Red Sea including: Kamaran
which is the largest inhabited island in the Red Sea, the islands
of the Hanish archipelago, the island of Meon has a strategic
location in the Strait of Bab al-Mandab the southern gate of the
Red Sea is the most important islands in the Arabian Sea:
Socotra Archipelago.
•
•
THE CLIMATE IN YEMEN
Yemen overlooks two seas: the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Yemen's climate did not benefit from
the marine characteristics significantly only in raising the air humidity on the coast, where
the impact of these two seas in modifying the properties of the republic's climate is very
limited only to humidity and modifying some properties of wind While their role in the
instability of air is limited. The amount of rainfall in Yemen in two seasons: the first season
during the spring (March-April), and the second season in the summer (July-August), a
wetter season of spring. The amount of rainfall varies over Yemen rainfall in Ibb - Taiz and
Ad Dali and Yarim range between 600-1500 mm per year and less rainfall in the western
coastal plain as it is in Hodeidah, Mokha. Average annual rainfall increases with height of 50
mm on the coast to about 1000 mm on the slopes of the mountains of facing the Red Sea.
•
In the southern and eastern coasts of the country's western coast average annual rainfall is
estimated at about 50 mm per year in Aden, Alfayoush, code and Rayyan. The climate is
characterized by high temperatures in summer, up to 42 m and goes down in winter to 25
Degrees, while temperatures gradually drop as we ascend toward higher elevations
reaching on average about 33 m as a maximum and to 20 m as a minimum. In winter the
minimum temperatures on the highlands go down as low as zero degrees, in the winter of
1986, the temperature in Dhamar went as low as low (- 12 m).
•
The humidity is high in the coastal plains up to more than 80%, while it goes down toward
the inside and reaches its lowest levels in the desert areas with only15% humidity.
•
•
Yemen is roughly rectangular, stretching 1,500
kilometers7 from east to west and 350 kilometers
from north to south, and covers an area of 528,000
square kilometers Yemen has several climates.
Western Yemen benefits from monsoon rains, which
fall mainly in late spring and at the end of
summer. Most of the rain falls in the mountains,
with an annual maximum of a 1,000 millimeters in
the southern mountains, decreasing gradually to an
average of 400 millimeters in the northern
mountains. Temperatures in the mountains vary with
altitude and season, with an average of 16°C and
frosty winter nights in the higher mountains. The
Tihama coastal strip, by contrast, is always hot
and is very humid during the rainy season, a
climate similar to that across the Red Sea, in
Eritrea and Somalia. The eastern desert has a dry
climate, with heavy but sporadic rains and frosty
nights.
CLIMATIC DATA AND HISTORICAL
TEMPERATURES
Coastal Plains Historical temperatures at Al Hudaydah
city are shown below to illustrate the Coastal Plains
typical temperatures experienced in this region
Hudaydah •
Average Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
80
81
83
86
91
93
94
93
92
89
84
81
Average High Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
82
83
86
89
93
95
95
95
94
91
86
83
Average Low Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
78
78
80
83
88
90
92
90
90
87
81
78
Highest Recorded Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
90
90
91
102 102 104 101 102 100 100 100 90
Lowest Recorded Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
50
43
50
48
56
57
66
65
60
57
49
28
•
WESTERN SLOPES
Ta'izz is a typical town on the Western Slopes. Its historical temperatures
give an insight into suitable conditions in which to keep Calyptratus.
Average Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
63
67
72
76
78
80
80
78
76
76
71
67
Average High Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
74
81
83
89
87
91
90
87
83
83
80
73
Average Low Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
52
53
61
62
69
68
70
68
69
68
62
61
Highest Recorded Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
81
87
89
94
95
97
102 93
90
90
84
82
Lowest Recorded Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul.
Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
44
61
44
56
57
63
63
63
62
62
57
57
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HIGHLANDS REGION
The Highlands region is cool and relatively dry (200-400mm rain annually) with
less humidity than the previous two regions..
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In the upper highlands, night-time temperatures can drop to below freezing. On
these cold nights Calyptratus has been seen to overnight in fissures in the
ground and the centre of thick bushes.
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Sana'a is a typical highland town.
•
Average Temperature (°F)
• Jan.
62
Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
65
68
69
72
75
76
74
73
66
62
60
Average High Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
72
74
76
76
80
83
83
81
80
75
72
71
Average Low Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
51
55
60
61
65
67
68
67
65
56
51
50
Highest Recorded Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
84
84
88
89
91
90
91
91
91
93
85
84
Lowest Recorded Temperature (°F)
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
34
37
46
48
45
52
48
45
48
39
34
32
ADEN
Aden, Yemen) weather station over the course of
an average year. It is based on the historical
records from 2006 to 2012.
Climate data for Aden
Month
Average
high °C
(°F)
Average
low °C (°F)
Rainfall
mm
(inches)
Avg. rainy
days
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Year
28
29
30
32
35
37
37
36
36
33
30
30
32.8
(82)
(84)
(86)
(90)
(95)
(99)
(99)
(97)
(97)
(91)
(86)
(86)
(91)
21
22
23
24
26
28
28
27
27
23
22
21
24.3
(70)
(72)
(73)
(75)
(79)
(82)
(82)
(81)
(81)
(73)
(72)
(70)
(75.8)
3
4
6
5
1
1
4
4
7
1
2
2
40
(0.12)
(0.16)
(0.24)
(0.2)
(0.04)
(0.04)
(0.16)
(0.16)
(0.28)
(0.04)
(0.08)
(0.08)
(1.6)
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
5
8
8
9
9
10
9
7
8
9
10
9
9
8.8
Mean
daily sunshi
ne hours
Aden mean sea temperature[1]
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
26 °C (79 °F)
26 °C (79 °F)
27 °C (81 °F)
28 °C (82 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
31 °C (88 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
29 °C (84 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
29 °C (84 °F)
28 °C (82 °F)
27 °C (81 °F)
HADHRAMOUT
Hadhramout This report describes the typical weather at the Sayun
Airport (Sayun, Yemen) weather station over the course of an average
year. It is based on the historical records from 2008 to 2012.
SOCOTRA IS THE MAIN ISLAND
The climate of Socotra is classified in the Köppen climate classification
as BWh and BSh, meaning a tropical desert climate and semi-desert
climate with a mean annual temperature over 25 °C (78 °F). Yearly rainfall
is light, but is fairly spread throughout the year.
Climate data for Socotra
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Year
Average
high °C (°F)
27.2
28.5
30.5
(81)
(83.3)
(86.9)
32.7
34.2
33.9
32.0
32.3
32.7
31.4
29.8
28.0
31.1
(90.9)
(93.6)
(93)
(89.6)
(90.1)
(90.9)
(88.5)
(85.6)
(82.4)
(87.98)
Daily mean
°C (°F)
22.0
23.4
25.1
27.5
28.9
29.0
27.6
27.5
27.6
26.0
24.2
22.7
25.96
(71.6)
(74.1)
(77.2)
(81.5)
(84)
(84.2)
(81.7)
(81.5)
(81.7)
(78.8)
(75.6)
(72.9)
(78.73)
Average low
°C (°F)
16.8
(62.2)
18.3
19.8
22.2
23.7
24.1
23.2
22.8
22.6
20.6
18.7
17.5
20.86
(64.9)
(67.6)
(72)
(74.7)
(75.4)
(73.8)
(73)
(72.7)
(69.1)
(65.7)
(63.5)
(69.55)
Precipitation
mm (inches)
23
18
14
22
37
18
12
15
27
38
18
16
258
(0.91)
(0.71)
(0.55)
(0.87)
(1.46)
(0.71)
(0.47)
(0.59)
(1.06)
(1.5)
(0.71)
(0.63)
(10.16)
2.0
2.0
2.1
3.4
4.1
6.0
9.7
9.3
4.9
3.2
3.0
3.0
52.7
20
21
24
27
29
29
28
27
27
25
22
21
25.2
Avg. precipitat
ion days (≥ 0.0
mm)
% humidity
THE NATURE OF YEMEN
THE NATURE OF YEMEN
The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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The nature of Yemen
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Thank you so much •
Teacher : Fathi Hawash •

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