EXTREME CAVES By Colin Imaizumi-Rankin WHERE I WILL RESEARCH • The area that I am researching is Caves. In this PowerPoint I hope to show my knowledge of exploration, technology, and science. I will also have information about some types of caves and their climates. INTRODUCTION • There are four main types of caves: Epigenic caves, Hypogenic caves, lava tubes, and boulder caves shown in order below. Epigenic caves are created when surface water goes into cracks or fissures in the ground and cause the rock to dissolve. A hypogenic cave is created when rainwater mixes with brine causing it to dissolve the rock deeper and deeper until the water in the upper part of the cave drains away. A lava tube is formed when cooling lava flows away from a volcanic vent. Finally, a boulder cave is created when rocks collapse on top of a stream causing it to become blocked off so soil forms on top and plants start to grow. CLIMATE • The climate in caves widely vary depending on where the cave is in the world. In a cave in Wales, the humidity is very high, between 98% to 100% humidity but if there is wind then near the entrance the humidity can drop to about 75%. Also, in Wales when you go deep into a cave the temperature will be about 8-9 Celsius. CAVES IN CANADA • Canada has many caves, mostly near Toronto, including interesting names like The Black Hole, Hoodoo Caves, Chipmunk caves, and the Devil's Bath. OBSTACLES AND DIFFICULT CONDITIONS • Some things that make it hard to survive in an extreme cave are that there could be toxic gases and/or hostile creatures. Also, the temperature might be freezing cold or burning hot and there could be rocks falling and avalanches, or the cave could be underwater. WHY THIS IS IMPORTANT • People need to explore caves because then we can find out more about conditions on our planet and other planets, and be able to understand interesting phenomenon. Also, you can see how organisms survive in an extreme environment. EXPLORATION AND TECHNOLOGY PAST EXPLORATIONS • Cave exploring is called spelunking in Canada and the U.S. and potholing in the U.K. and Ireland, but most commonly called caving. In 1910, miners discovered a cave beneath the Naica mine workings, called the Cave of Swords. The Cave of Swords contains 1meter long selenite crystals. The crystals here are so clear that they almost look like glass. TECHNOLOGY Explore Survival • Mapping instrumentsHelps you map out the cave. • Flashlight and/or helmet light- This helps you see • Markers- Marks your path so you don’t get lost. • Gas mask- Covers your mouth so that you don’t breathe in toxic gases. • Diving suit- Helps you explore underwater caves. • Radio transmitter- Helps you communicate with people outside the cave. • Body suit- This helps you so that you don’t get roasted to death or freeze to death. CANADIAN INVENTIONS • Walkie-Talkies • First patented lightbulb • Radar RESPONSIBILITY • People could explore this region more responsibly if they didn’t litter and leave anything behind or if they didn’t harm the wildlife. If they just treaded softly and didn’t touch anything vital to the cave, the cave could stay there for much longer without being polluted. BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://www.writers-free-reference.com/cheddarcave1.jpg • http://www.cave-exploring.com/Cave%20Types.htm • http://www.cave-exploring.com/Hypogenic.htm • http://www.cave-exploring.com/Boulder.htm • http://www.cambriancavingcouncil.org.uk/cavelife/wales/climate.html • https://maps.google.ca/maps?hl=en&q=Caves+in+canada+map&bav=on.2,or.r_cp.r_qf.&b vm=bv.45645796,d.cGE&biw=1600&bih=750&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wl • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_caves_in_Canada • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caving • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_of_the_Crystals • http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.eiu.lifecondtn/ • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_technology_is_used_to_explore_caves • http://www.wondercafe.ca/discussion/social/50-great-canadian-inventions • http://www3.sympatico.ca/taniah/Canada/things/ THANK YOU FOR WATCHING!