Centre for Anthropological Research (CfAR) University of Johannesburg 23 May 2013 Ruth Stewart, Marcel Korth, Hazel Zaranyika, Natalie Rebelo Da Silva , Laurenz Langer, Nolizwe Madinga Brief overview of smallholder farming Methodology adopted in this review of systematic reviews What areas do the available reviews cover? What do we already know about smallholder farming? What are the gaps in the systematic review evidence? What next? Significance of smallholder farming in Africa ◦ Produce 80% food in developing countries ◦ Majority of Africa’s farmers ◦ Increasingly recognized by donors and governments as important Definitions of smallholder farming Family farms Size based (2 hectares) Resource poor Mix of commercial and subsistence production ◦ Lack of consensus ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ http://secure.worldbank.org/photolibrary/shared/SiteResources/PhotoLibrary/Images/secur e/LowRes/BJ001S08.jpg Systematic review funded by CIDA - which interventions work best for smallholder farmers in Africa, especially young farmers? 3 stage review: 1) Review of reviews 2) Map of impact studies 3) Focused synthesis Searched for systematic reviews: ◦ 7 Databases ◦ 6 Systematic Review Libraries Screened them using inclusion criteria: ◦ Study design: systematic reviews with structured methodology ◦ Population: smallholder farmers (noting studies targeting young farmers & female farmers) ◦ Region: included or focused on Africa (Also captured individual impact studies from within reviews for our map of impact studies) http://secure.worldbank.org/photolibrary/servlet/main?contentMDK=20104453&startIndex=233&theSitePK=265652&piPK=145042&pa gePK=145040&imgfilename=BF021S06 Coded included reviews using our framework Extracted findings from each review and did a simple narrative synthesis Framework for describing systematic reviews Investment Innovation Yield / Productivity Income / wealth Food security / Nutrition Training Innovation / new technology Infrastructure Finance Included 14 relevant systematic reviews ◦ One review on training ◦ Nine reviews on innovation and new technology ◦ One review on agricultural infrastructure ◦ Four reviews on finance for farmers (one review is about both innovation and about infrastructure) Framework for describing systematic reviews Training Innovation / new technology Infrastructure Finance Yield / Productivity Waddington et al Bayala et al. Bennet & Franzel IOB Rusinamhodzi et al. IOB Cole et al Income / wealth Waddington et al Hall et al. Investment Innovation Food security / Nutrition Berti et al. Girad et al. Gunaratna et al. IOB Masset et al. Cole et al. Duvendack et al. Stewart et al. a. Stewart et al. b. These are findings from the reviews with relevance to smallholder farming In our map of impact studies we will explore in more detail interventions which focused specifically on farmers We haven’t conducted quality appraisal of these reviews – we are trusting what the review authors reported Training: farmer field schools One systematic review Yield / Productivity Productivity increased Improved agricultural outputs Income / wealth Reduction in pesticide costs Increased income and revenue But, we don’t know how sustainable these positive outcomes are Innovation / new technology Nine systematic reviews Yield / Productivity Conservation agriculture increases crop yield Organic and Resource Conserving Agriculture increases yield Income / wealth Certification for organic crops increases incomes Food security / Nutrition GM crops have mixed results on economic impacts Biofortification has mixed results on nutrition impacts Infrastructure One systematic review Yield / Productivity Generally positive, particularly for land reform Finance Four systematic reviews Income/wealth Microcredit and microsavings have a positive impact on savings, expenditure and accumulation of assets – but only limited evidence Commitment savings improve levels of non-financial assets Microcredit encourages the poor to engage in economic activities No improvement in income and wealth Index based insurance increases the use of agricultural inputs i.e. fertilizers Food security and Nutrition Microcredit and microsavings have positive effects on food security and nutrition Number of reviews Investment Innovation Food security Income Yield/productivity 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Training Innovation & Infrastructure new tech. Interventions Finance 3 stage review: Our (pre)protocol for this map has just been peer reviewed through 3ie ◦ 1) Review of reviews ◦ 2) Map of impact studies conducted in Africa ◦ 3) Focused synthesis ◦ We’re now re-focusing the scope of our map ◦ And revising the framework ◦ Currently searching and screening for impact studies Map completed in July to inform decisions about where to focus our full synthesis (our 3rd stage) Prepare full Campbell protocol Draft report of our full Campbell review will be ready in early 2014 http://secure.worldbank.org/photolibrary/servlet/main?contentMDK=90001258 &startIndex=425&theSitePK=265652&piPK=145042&pagePK=145040&imgfilena me=ET006S08 Bayala J, SileshiGW, Coe R, Kalinganire A, Tchoundjeu Z, Sinclair F, Garrity D (2012) Cereal yield response to conservation agriculture practices in drylands of West Africa: A quantitative synthesis. Journal of Arid Environments (78): 13-25. Bennett M and Franzel S (2009) Can organic and resource-conserving agriculture improve livelihoods? A meta-analysis and conceptual framework for site-specific evaluation.ICRAF Occasional Paper No. 11. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre. Berti RP, Krasevec J, FitzGerald F (2004) A review of the effectiveness of agriculture interventions in improving nutrition outcomes. Public Health Nutrition,7 (5): 599-609. Cole S, Bastian G, Vyas S, Wendel C, Stein D (2012) The effectiveness of index based micro-insurance in helping smallholders manage weather-related risks. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Duvendack M, Palmer-Jones R,Copestake JG, Hooper L, Loke Y, Rao N (2011) What is the evidence of the impact of microfinance on the well-being of poor people? London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Gunaratna NS, De Groote H, Nestel P, Pixley KV, McCabe GP (2010) A meta-analysis of community-based studies on quality protein maize, Food Policy, (35): 202–210 Girard AW, Self JL, McAuliffe C, Oludea O (2012) The Effects of Household Food Production Strategies on the Health and Nutrition Outcomes of Women and Young Children: A Systematic Review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 26(Suppl. 1), 205–222. Hall C, Knight B, Ringrose S, Knox O (2012) What have been the farm-level economic impacts of the global cultivation of GM crops?Systematic Review No.CEE 11-002. IOB (2011) Improving food security.A systematic review of the impact of interventions in agricultural production, value chains, market regulation, and land security.IOB Study No 363. Masset E, Haddad L, Cornelius A and Isaza-Castro J (2011) A systematic review of agricultural interventions that aim to improve nutritional status of children. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Rusinamhodzi L, Corbeels M, van Wijk MT, Rufino MC, Nyamangara J and GillerKE (2011) A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions. Agronomy Sustainable Development, (31): 657–673. Stewart R, van Rooyen C, Dickson K, Majoro M, de Wet T (2010) What is the impact of microfinance on poor people? A systematic review of evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. Technical report. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, University of London. Stewart R, van Rooyen C, KorthM, Chereni A, Rebelo Da Silva N, de Wet T (2012) Do micro-credit, microsavings and micro-leasing serve as effective financial inclusion interventions enabling poor people, and especially women, to engage in meaningful economic opportunities in low- and middle-income countries. A systematic review of the evidence. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Waddington H,Snilstveit B, Hombrados J, Vojtkova M, White H (in press) Farmer Field Schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews.