Coal to olefins technology

Report
13/14 Spring Semester
Energy
(TKK-2129)
Instructor: Rama Oktavian
Email: [email protected]
Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11
Outlines
1. Clean coal technology
2. Coal to chemical (olefins)
3. Coal gasification
4. Coal to liquid fuel
Clean coal technology
Clean coal technology
A new generation of coal-burning power plants with energy processes that reduce
air emissions and other pollutants.
Coal power plants technology must adapt to the changing political climate towards
environmental issues.
Clean coal technology
Clean coal technology
Clean coal technologies are several generations of technological advances that
have led to more efficient combustion of coal with reduced emissions of sulfur
dioxide and nitrogen oxide.
(http://www.nma.org/pdf/fact_sheets/cct.pdf)
Wet scrubbers
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
(IGCC)
Flue Gas Desulfurization
Low Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Burners
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Electrostatic Precipitators
Carbon Capture and Storage
(CCS)
Clean coal technology
Wet scrubbers
When the emissions reach the flue
of the furnace limestone and water
are sprayed
The SO2 reacts with the calcium
carbonate (limestone) to form
gypsum (calcium sulfate)
The gypsum is collected and used
for construction
http://www.life.umd.edu/biology/dudashlab/Docs%20for%20CPS/
Presenations/Clean%20Coal%20Sam.ppt
Clean coal technology
Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC)
IGCC uses a coal gasification system to convert coal into a synthesis gas (syngas)
and produce steam.
- The hot syngas is processed to remove sulfur compounds, mercury and
particulate matter before it is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator, which
produces electricity.
- The heat in the exhaust gases from the combustion turbine is recovered to
generate additional steam
- This steam, along with that from the syngas process, then drives a steam
turbine generator to produce additional electricity.
http://www.duke-energy.com/about-us/how-igcc-works.asp
Clean coal technology
Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC)
http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/images/IGCCI.jpg?aba085
The integration of these technologies provides the high efficiency of the
combined-cycle design with the low cost of coal
Clean coal technology
Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC)
Advantages:
- efficiencies currently approaching 50%, IGCC power plants use less coal and
produce much lower emissions of carbon dioxide than conventional power
plants
- Higher output: Using syngas in a gas turbine increases its output
- The gasification process in IGCC enables the production of not only electricity,
but a range of chemicals, by-products for industrial use, and transport fuels
http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/images/IGCCI.jpg?aba085
Clean coal technology
Carbon capture and storage
Process consisting of the separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related
sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the
atmosphere
http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/images/IGCCI.jpg?aba085
http://wiki.dickinson.edu/index.php/Carbon_Capture_and_Storage
Clean coal technology
Carbon capture and storage
Three processes in the CCS technology [1]
1. Capturing the CO2 produced from industrial or power generation processes
2. Transporting the CO2 to an underground geological formation which is suitable
geological formations
3. CO2 can be used as fluid in “Enhanced Oil Recovery”, where CO2 pushing the
remaining oil [2]
[1] http://webberenergyblog.wordpress.com/2012/04/06/3272/
[2] “Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)”, Congressional Research Service, June 19, 2009
<http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33801.pdf>
Clean coal technology
Carbon capture and storage
http://www.captureready.com/userfiles/image/Carbon%20Capture/Post-combustion%20Capture%20Process_Vattenfall.jpg
Clean coal technology
Carbon capture and storage
http://www.captureready.com/userfiles/image/Carbon%20Capture/Pre-combustion%20Capture%20Process_Vattenfall.jpg
Clean coal technology
Carbon capture and storage
http://www.captureready.com/userfiles/image/Carbon%20Capture/Oxyfuel%20Combustion%20Capture%20Process_Vattenfall
.jpg
Coal gasification
Gasification
the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of methane (CH4)
carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor
(H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen
Coal gasification
Coal gasification reaction
In coal gasification, four principal reactions are crucial:
1. Steam gasification
2. Carbon dioxide gasification
3. Hydrogasification
4. Partial oxidation reaction
S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka. 2007. Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
Coal gasification
Coal gasification reaction
1. Steam gasification
The steam gasification reaction is endothermic
S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka. 2007. Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
Coal gasification
Coal gasification reaction
2. Carbon dioxide gasification
Carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide and this reaction is
called Boudouard reaction.
This reaction is also endothermic in nature, similar to the steam gasification
reaction
S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka. 2007. Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
Coal gasification
Coal gasification reaction
3. Hydrogasification
Direct addition of hydrogen to coal under high pressure forms methane
This reaction is exothermic and requires high temperature and pressure
S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka. 2007. Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
Coal gasification
Coal gasification reaction
4. Partial oxidation
Combustion of coal involves reaction with oxygen, which may be supplied as pure
oxygen or as air, and forms carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Principal
chemical reactions between carbon and oxygen involve:
S. Lee, J. G. Speight, S. K. Loyalka. 2007. Handbook of alternative fuel technology. CRC Press
Coal gasification
Coal gasification scheme
Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin, Devendra Canchi. 2007. Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) & Fischer-Tropsch Processing (FT). The Energy
Center at Discovery Park Purdue University
Coal to chemical (CTC)
Coal to olefins technology
Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industry
To reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil
Coal to chemical (CTC)
Coal to olefins technology
A number of coal-to-olefins (CTO) processes have been developed:
1. UOP/Hydro MTO
2. DMTO developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of Chinese Academy of
Science
3. SMTO by Sinopec
4. Lurgi MTP
5. FMTP by Tsinghua University
Coal to chemical (CTC)
Coal to olefins technology
A CTO plant based on the technology was built by Shenhua Group and successfully
put into commercial production on January 2011 with capacity 0.7 Mt/a olefins
(0.3 Mt/a ethylene, 0.3 Mt/a propylene, and 0.1 Mt/a C4 ).
Coal to chemical (CTC)
Coal to olefins technology
Process flow diagram
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel (Coal liquefaction)
Block flow diagram
X. Zhao, R. D. Mc Gihon, S. A. Tabak. 2008. Coal to liquid gasoline. Exxonmobil research and engineering, USA
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel
Block flow diagram
Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin, Devendra Canchi. 2007. Coal-To-Liquids (CTL) & Fischer-Tropsch Processing (FT). The Energy
Center at Discovery Park Purdue University
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel
Fischer-Tropsch process
converting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide—derived from coal,
methane or biomass—to liquid fuels
uses hydrogen (H2) and carbon-monoxide (CO) to make different types of
hydrocarbons with various H2:CO ratios
In a CTL facility the H2 and CO can be supplied from the coal gasifier
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel
Fischer-Tropsch process
The original Fischer-Tropsch process is described by the following chemical
equation:
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel
Fischer-Tropsch process
CATALYSTS & PRODUCTS
CATALYST
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Ruthenium
Rhodium
PRODUCT
Linear alkenes and oxygenates
Alkanes
Methane
High molecular weight hydrocarbons
Large amounts of hydrocarbons & little oxygenates
Coal to liquid fuel
Coal to liquid fuel (Coal liquefaction)
Block flow diagram

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