MaryRuth L. Nich, RN, ADN Wilmington University “The oldest, most commonly used, and most traditional instructional method by which the teacher verbally transmits information in a highly structured format directly to a group of learners” (Bastable, 2008, p. 629) traced back to Greek society and Plato's Academy, where oratory was the principal mode of mass communication In medieval Europe, often only one manuscript of any work was available lecture was the way to share the knowledge stored in these manuscripts with students (Bland, Saunders, and Kreps Frisch, 2007) Provides foundational background information Summarizes data and current research Highly instructor-centered, but if wellorganized and delivered effectively, it can be extremely useful Lecturer’s expertise important in providing information not available elsewhere Introduction – purpose is to engage learners’ attention and present learning objectives Body – delivery of content; this part may be supplemented with other methods to enhance the learning experience Conclusion – review of major concepts; appropriate time for question/answer session Useful mainly for the cognitive learning domain “learning in this domain involves the acquisition of information and addresses the development of the learner’s intellectual abilities, mental capacities, understanding, and thinking processes” (Bastable, 2008, p. 394) Information-Processing Perspective Emphasizes thinking processes (how information is incorporated and retrieved) – 4 stages: I. II. III. IV. paying attention to environmental stimuli sensory processing of information (visual, auditory, or motor manipulation) information is encoded into short-term memory Information is then forgotten, or stored in long-term memory by such methods as imagery, association, rehearsal, or breaking into units learner makes action or response that based on how information was processed and stored (Bastable, 2008) Healthcare education – professional standards, anatomy/physiology, pathology, pharmacology On-the-job training/updates In nursing - BLS/ACLS, new medications or equipment, RNC certification review courses New employee orientation Outpatient education Expectant parent preparation, healthy lifestyles classes, living with chronic illnesses College/University lecture hall Classroom Online Professional conference Continuing education seminar Businesses/organizations Highly adaptable active instructional methods may be incorporated into the lecture based on instructor skill level, lecture content, and learner needs Able to target large groups of learners Effective technique for the cognitive learning domain Cost effective and efficient – can transmit large amounts of information to many learners in a relatively short time (van Dijk, van den Berg, and van Keulen, 1999) Not individualized to different learners backgrounds, prior education, learning styles/needs, cognitive abilities The instructor is usually the only active participant; learners are largely passive Not typically effective for psychomotor or affective domains of learning Quality of lecture is highly susceptible to skill of lecturer (Bland et al, 2007) Easy to add audiovisual aids PowerPoint slides, videos, slides, numerical charts/graphs, images Handouts or outlines to emphasize important concepts Discussions, question/answer session, or “Fill-inthe-blank” lecture notes may encourage active learning May be used as a prelude to other methods, such as gaming, simulation, demonstration, roleplaying, or group discussion May adapt for online/distance format lecture (Bastable, 2008, and DiBattista, 2005) Outcomes are greatly improved when instructor develops a rapport with students teacher immediacy – “extent to which teachers reduce the psychological distance between themselves and their students” (Bland et al, 2007, p. 12) Use of gestures, smiles, anecdotes, humor Other strategies to improve lecture quality: Slower speaking, frequent pauses, varying vocal tone, making eye contact (Puttee and Mezzina, 2008) Formative – make adjustments as needed Difficult in traditional lecture, but lecturer should observe learners’ body language to determine attention; also evaluate environment (temperature, noise) Content – evaluate the specific learning experience May be incorporated by using discussion, games, or question/answer session post-lecture Summative – determines outcome of teaching Final exams, writing assignments, licensure exams Bastable, S.B. (2008). Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning. 3rd Ed. Boston: Jones & Bartlett. Bland, M., Saunders, G., and Kreps Frisch, J. (2007). In defense of the lecture. Journal of college science teaching, 37(2), 10-13. DiBattista, D. (2005). Fill-in-the-blank lecture notes: Advantages. Teaching professor, 19(8), 1-5. Puttee, C.M., and Mezzina, K.E. (2008). In defense of the lecture: Strategies to assist in active learning experiences in accounting units. e-Journal of business education and scholarship of teaching, 2(2), 28-38. van Dijk, L.A., van den Berg, G.C., and van Keulen, H. (1999). Using active instructional methods in lectures: A matter of skills and preference. Innovations in education and training international, 36(4), 260-272.