A Measure of Equity Women’s Progress, Power, and Priorities Caryn McTighe Musil The Association of American Colleges and Universities CCAS Conference – New Orleans Gender Issues Breakfast November 13, 2010 Three areas deans should consider as priorities Who is coming to college? What are women students majoring in? How are women faculty faring? First Priority WHO IS COMING TO COLLEGE WHO IS MISSING? First Priority WHO’S COMING TO COLLEGE, WHO IS MISSING, AND WHY DOES IT MATTER? WHERE RACE, GENDER, AND SOCIOECONOMICS CONVERGE Who is Completing High School*? Millions High School Completion, 2005 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 14.1 13.8 11.592 11.1954 U.S. Population 79.4% 86.5% % Men H.S. Completion Women Ages 18-24 *H.S. Completion refers to the earning of a H.S. diploma or its equivalent Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey Report; American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement Who is Completing H.S., by Race and Ethnicity*? Percentage H.S. Completion by Gender and Race or Ethnicity, 2005 Percentage 100 85.6 90.1 84.4 73.5 80 72.7 60 60 Men 40 Women 20 0 White African American Hispanic *Comparable data for Asian American students not available Source: American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement Who Is Transitioning to College? Percentage H.S. Completers Transitioning to College, 2005 60 Percentage 50 46.1 51.2 44 38 40 40.6 34.4 Men 30 Women 20 10 0 White African American Hispanic *Comparable data for Asian American students not available Source: American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement The Socioeconomic Gap It trumps race, gender, and ethnicity High school completion rates for students whose family incomes were below $38,660=68% High school completion rates for students whose family incomes were above $105,800=92% That is a 24% gap Is There a Boys’ Crisis? Are Women’s Gains Affecting Men’s Enrollment? Undergraduate Enrollment by Gender, 1970-2005 Enrolled Students (Millions) 12 10 10 8 6 4 7.9 6.7 6.2 5 3.5 7.5 5.9 Men Women 2 0 1970 1980 1995 2005 Year Men’s rates of postsecondary degree attainment from associate’s degrees through doctoral degrees are higher than they have been since the early 1970s, and men still earn the majority of U.S. doctorates. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2006 and 2007 Which Men are Struggling? Percentage H.S. Completers Transitioning to College, 2005 60 Percentage 50 46.1 51.2 44 38 40 40.6 34.4 Men 30 Women 20 10 0 White African American Hispanic *Comparable data for Asian American students not available Source: American Council on Education, Minorities in Higher Education 22nd Annual Status Report: 2007 Supplement Which Men are Completing College? Percentage of Population 18 and Older with Bachelor's Degree, 2007 20 17 Percentage 15 15 12 10 10 Men Women 5 0 African American Hispanic In 2007, 27 percent of white men and women ages 18 and over held at least a bachelor’s degree. (At upper income levels, the gender gap does not exist.) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 Are Other Notable Changes in Enrollment Occurring? In 2005, 4.2 million women attending college were age 25 or older, representing an increase of 18 percent in the last ten years. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 2006 and 2007 Second Priority WHAT ARE WOMEN MAJORING IN AND WITH WHAT CONSEQUENCES? Where Are Women Earning Degrees? 62 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 60 58 45 Do ct or at e Pr of es sio na l as te r 's M As so cia Ba cc al au re at e 49 te Percentage Percentage of Degrees Earned by Women, 2005-06 Sources: National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics 2007 and NSF/NIH/USED/NEH/USDA/NASA Survey of Earned Doctorates 2006 C ea l th pr of es sio ns an d re la te d cl in ic al om sc m ie En un nc gl ic es at is E d h io uc n, la at ng jo io Ps ur ua n na yc ge l h Bi / li is o te m ol l o og ,a ra gy tu nd ic re al re /l e an la tte d te rs bi om d p Vi ro su ed gr al ic am al an So s sc d ci p i e al er n ce fo sc rm s ie M nc in at g es he a rts an m d at hi ic Ph st s ys or an ic y Ag d al s r ta ic sc ul t ie i s tu tic nc re s es Bu /n at an s ur in d En es al C sc gi om s re ie ne so pu nc er ur e te in ce te r/i g s ch nf an or no d m lo en at gi gi io es ne n sc er i in e nc g te es ch no lo gi es H In What Fields are Women Earning Degrees? Percentage of Degrees Earned by Women, by Field, 2004-05 100 90 80 70 60 Bachelor's 50 Master's 40 30 Doctoral 20 10 0 Source: National Center for Education Statistics Condition of Education 2007 What you major in affects lifetime earnings “After graduation, gender segregation in college major choice is reflected in gender segregation the workforce, with significant economic consequences for women.” Andresse St. Rose OCWW issue on gender pay gap What’s the big deal? One year after entering the workforce, women make 80% of what their male peers earn. The figure drops to 69% after ten years. Dey and Hill, 2007 A female college graduate will lose 1.2 million dollars over the course of her working life as a result of the gender wage gap. The figure jumps to 2 million for professional school graduates. But Women Have Made Progress in the STEM fields…Right? Percent Female, Bachelor's Degrees, by Year and STEM Field 100 Agricultural Sciences Biological Sciences Computer Sciences Percent 80 Earth, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences Mathematics and Statistics Physical Sciences 60 40 20 0 96 997 998 000 001 002 003 004 005 9 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Year Psychology Social Sciences Source: National Science Foundation, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering. 2006. Engineering Third Priority WHAT ARE THE FRONT BURNER ISSUES FOR WOMEN FACULTY? My Top Choices Advancement to tenure and promotion within ranks Salary equity with their comparable male colleagues Institutional support to off-set the current impossible task of balancing work and family obligations Women Faculty Who are the women? Where are they located? How are women faring? Race and Ethnicity of Women Faculty Breakdown of Race/Ethnicity of Women Faculty 17.4% White Women Women of color 78.1% Source: Source: National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics: 2006 FACULTY: Tenured Women Faculty by Institution Type Percentage of Tenured Faculty by Institution Type Percentage 50 47 37 40 35 26 30 Percentage of Tenured Faculty by Institution Type Doctoral institutions Master’s institutions Baccalaureate institutions Associate institutions 20 Women constituted less than a third (31%) of all tenured positions in 2005-2006 Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators” AAUP Gender Equity Indicators Employment status (full time vs. part time) Tenure track options Academic rank Salary Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators” Full-time Faculty in Degree-Granting Institutions Full-Time Faculty in Degree-Granting Institutions 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 Associate 42404 53661 Assistant 86182 73507 Lecturer 46481 12976 52074 14239 Men Women 84783 150000 100000 50000 0 Professor 126788 Instructor Source: Source: National Center for Education Statistics Digest of Education Statistics: 2006 Employment Status Women account for 39% of full-time faculty The proportion of full-time faculty appointments are declining The proportion of part-time, contingent appointments is increasing – Women account for a disproportionate number of these appointments Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators” Average Salary for Women vs. Men The average salary for women faculty was 81% of the amount earned by men This comparison has remained steady since the 1970’s Source: AAUP. 2007. “Faculty Gender Equity Indicators” The Effect of Babies What is the Relationship Between Family Life and Academic Career? Family Status 12 Years After the Doctorate 90 80 85 74 70 63 Percentage 60 55 50 Children Married 40 30 20 10 0 Men Women Sources: Mary Ann Mason and Marc Goulden. 2004. Do babies matter? (Part II): Closing the baby gap. Family and Marital Status of Women CEOs Family and Marital Status 100 80 Percentage 91 89 63 68 60 Women Men 40 14 20 4 10 3 0 Married Children Divorced Never married Source: American Council on Education. “The American College President” FAMILY PROFILE OF COLLEGE PRESIDENTS – Among presidents: 68% of women CEOs have children vs. 91% of men – That is a 23% differential. What obstructs the advancement of women faculty? When women marry When women have babies When women come up for promotion Source: Mary Ann Mason and Mark Goulden, “Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on the Lifelong Careers of Academic Men and Women. Academe 88(6):21-27 So What Can You and Your Institution Do About Any of This? Turn to the person beside you and name your single most effective strategy now in place to address any one of these three priorities about students, choice of majors, or advancing women faculty. Then name one intervention you think your institutions should invest in—with your help as a key leader. Jane Addams "The good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our common life."