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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 3
Prenatal Development, Birth,
and the Newborn Baby
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Conception and Implantation
Figure 3.1
(From Before We Are
Born, 6th ed., by K.L.
Moore & T.V.N. Persaud,
p. 87. Copyright © 2003,
reprinted with permission
from Elsevier, Inc.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Periods of Prenatal
Development
Period and Length
Key Events
Zygote
(2 weeks)
 Fertilization
 Implantation
 Start of placenta
Embryo
(6 weeks)
 Groundwork laid for all body
structures and internal organs
Fetus
(30 weeks)
 “Growth and finishing” phase
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Formation of the Zygote
• The zygote begins when the ovum is penetrated
by a sperm. Over the next 30 hours, it divides
once, and then divides more rapidly over the
next two weeks.
• The cells on the inside of this ball will become
the organism; the cells on the outside will
become the placenta and supporting structures.
• By the fourth day, 60 or 70 cells form a hollow,
fluid-filled blastocyst.
• Sometime between the 7th and 9th day, the
blastocyst burrows into the uterine wall.
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Period of the Zygote/Germinal
Period
• The first two weeks after fertilization
• Includes formation of the zygote
• The zygote splits to form a blastocyst, and
then the hollow, fluid-filled blastula.
• The blastula travels to the uterus and
implants
• Cell differentiation, producing the
embryonic disc and supporting structures,
begins by the end of the first week.
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Period of the Embryo
• End of the 2nd week until the end of the second month
after fertilization; when fertilization is complete.
• Outer cells of the blastula produce supporting structures;
inner cells of the inner, embryonic disc differentiate into
the embryo itself.
• Three structures are produced: amniotic sac: a
membrane filled with amniotic fluid, which helps
cushion and protect the embryo; the placenta; mass of
tissue attached to the uterine wall that acts as a filter;
umbilical cord: connects placenta to the embryo,
contains 2 fetal arteries and one fetal vein.
• First 6 weeks: the embryo develops arms, legs, fingers,
toes, a face, a beating heart, a brain, lungs, and all other
major organs
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
The Embryo
• After implantation, the embryo develops into three
distinct layers:
• Ectoderm: becomes the nervous system and skin
• Mesoderm: becomes the muscles, skeleton,
circulatory system, and other internal organs
• Endoderm: becomes the digestive system, lungs,
urinary tract, and glands
• The ectoderm folds over to form the neural tube that will
become the spinal cord and brain.
• Arms and legs unfold, eyes become visible and lungs,
digestive and excretory systems begin to form.
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Period of the Fetus
 Third month:
 organs, muscles, and nervous system start to
become organized and connected
 lungs begin to expand and contract
 Second trimester:
 many organs are well-developed by 20 weeks
 most of the brain’s neurons are in place
 Third trimester:
 age of viability: 22–26 weeks
 fetus takes on beginnings of personality
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sensitive Periods in
Prenatal Development
Figure 3.2
(Adapted from
Before We Are
Born, 7th ed., by
K.L. Moore &
T.V.N. Persaud,
p. 313. Copyright
© 2008, reprinted
with permission
from Elsevier,
Inc.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teratogens
 Harm done by teratogens
is affected by:




dose
heredity
age
other negative influences
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teratogenic Substances
 Drugs:
 prescription
 nonprescription
 illegal





Tobacco
Alcohol
Radiation
Environmental pollution
Infectious disease
© Minerva Studio/Fotolia
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Other Maternal Factors in
Prenatal Development
 Nutrition
 Emotional stress
 Rh factor
incompatibility
 Age
 Lack of prenatal health care
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Importance of Prenatal Care
 Monitor general health:
 weight gain
 capacity of uterus and
cervix to support fetus
 growth of the fetus
 Treat complications:
© Poznyakov/Shutterstock
 diabetes
 Preeclampsia:
Tomexmia – affects 510% of women
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Stages of Childbirth
 Dilation and
effacement of
the cervix
 Delivery of
the baby
 Delivery of the
placenta
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Stages of Labor
Figure 3.4
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
The Baby’s Adaptation
to Labor and Delivery
High levels of stress
hormones
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 help baby withstand
oxygen deprivation
 prepare baby
to breathe
 arouse infant into
alertness
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
The Apgar Scale
Table 3.2
(Source: Apgar, 1953.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Natural, or Prepared,
Childbirth
 Classes
 Relaxation and
breathing techniques
 Labor coach: friend,
relative, or trained
doula
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Birth Complications
 Anoxia (oxygen deprivation)
 Breech position
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Medical Interventions
in Childbirth
 Fetal monitoring
 Labor and delivery
medication
 analgesics
 anesthetics
 Cesarean delivery
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Preterm and
Small-for-Date Infants
Preterm
 Born several weeks
or more before their
due date
 Weight may be
appropriate for
length of pregnancy
Small-for-Date
 May be either
preterm or
full-term
 Below expected
weight for length
of pregnancy
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Interventions for
Preterm Infants
 Temperature-controlled
isolette
 Special stimulation:
 gentle rocking
 visual or auditory stimulation
 touch, such as skin-to-skin kangaroo care
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 Parent training in infant caregiving
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Infant
Mortality
in Thirty
Nations
Figure 3.5
(Adapted from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Reflexes




Rooting
Sucking
Moro
Stepping
© philipus/Fotalia
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Sense of Touch
 Sensitive to touch
 around mouth
 on palms and soles of feet
 Use touch to investigate
their world
 Severe pain
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 overwhelms nervous system with stress
hormones
 can be relieved with local anesthesia, sugar
solution, or physical touch
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Senses of
Taste and Smell
Infants
 have a preference for sweet tastes
at birth
 can readily learn to like new tastes
 have odor preferences at birth
 can locate odors and identify mother
by smell from birth
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Sense of Hearing
Newborns
 can hear a wide variety of sounds
 prefer complex sounds to pure tones
 can distinguish between a variety of sound
patterns when only a few days old
 listen longer to human speech than to
nonspeech sounds
 can detect the sounds of any human
language
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Sense of Vision
 Least developed sense at birth (20/600)
 Limited visual acuity
 Actively explore environment:
 scan for interesting sights
 track moving objects
 Not yet good at
discriminating colors
 Adult-like color vision at 4mos
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