Fetus

Report
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 3
Prenatal Development, Birth,
and the Newborn Baby
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Periods of Prenatal
Development
Period and Length
Key Events
Zygote
(2 weeks)
 Fertilization
 Implantation
 Start of placenta
Embryo
(6 weeks)
 Groundwork laid for all body
structures and internal organs
Fetus
(30 weeks)
 “Growth and finishing” phase
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Conception and Implantation
Figure 3.1
(From Before We Are
Born, 6th ed., by K.L.
Moore & T.V.N. Persaud,
p. 87. Copyright © 2003,
reprinted with permission
from Elsevier, Inc.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Period of the Fetus
 Third month:
 organs, muscles, and nervous system start to
become organized and connected
 lungs begin to expand and contract
 Second trimester:
 many organs are well-developed by 20 weeks
 most of the brain’s neurons are in place
 Third trimester:
 age of viability: 22–26 weeks
 fetus takes on beginnings of personality
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sensitive Periods in
Prenatal Development
Figure 3.2
(Adapted from
Before We Are
Born, 7th ed., by
K.L. Moore &
T.V.N. Persaud,
p. 313. Copyright
© 2008, reprinted
with permission
from Elsevier,
Inc.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teratogens
 Harm done by teratogens
is affected by:




dose
heredity
age
other negative influences
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teratogenic Substances
 Drugs:
 prescription
 nonprescription
 illegal



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Tobacco
Alcohol
Radiation
Environmental pollution
Infectious disease
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Other Maternal Factors in
Prenatal Development
 Nutrition
 Emotional stress
 Rh factor
incompatibility
 Age
 Lack of prenatal health care
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Importance of Prenatal Care
 Monitor general health:
 weight gain
 capacity of uterus and
cervix to support fetus
 growth of the fetus
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 Treat complications:
 diabetes
 preeclampsia
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Stages of Childbirth
 Dilation and
effacement of
the cervix
 Delivery of
the baby
 Delivery of the
placenta
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Stages of Labor
Figure 3.4
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
The Baby’s Adaptation
to Labor and Delivery
High levels of stress
hormones
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 help baby withstand
oxygen deprivation
 prepare baby
to breathe
 arouse infant into
alertness
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
The Apgar Scale
Table 3.2
(Source: Apgar, 1953.)
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Natural, or Prepared,
Childbirth
 Classes
 Relaxation and
breathing techniques
 Labor coach: friend,
relative, or trained
doula
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Birth Complications
 Anoxia (oxygen deprivation)
 Breech position
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Medical Interventions
in Childbirth
 Fetal monitoring
 Labor and delivery
medication
 analgesics
 anesthetics
 Cesarean delivery
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Preterm and
Small-for-Date Infants
Preterm
 Born several weeks
or more before their
due date
 Weight may be
appropriate for
length of pregnancy
Small-for-Date
 May be either
preterm or
full-term
 Below expected
weight for length
of pregnancy
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Interventions for
Preterm Infants
 Temperature-controlled
isolette
 Special stimulation:
 gentle rocking
 visual or auditory stimulation
 touch, such as skin-to-skin kangaroo care
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 Parent training in infant caregiving
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Infant
Mortality
in Thirty
Nations
Figure 3.5
(Adapted from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Reflexes

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Rooting
Sucking
Moro
Stepping
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Infant States of Arousal
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Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep
Drowsiness
Quiet alertness
Waking activity
and crying
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Soothing a Crying Baby
 Hold on shoulder, rock
or walk
 Swaddle
 Offer pacifier
 Massage baby’s body
 Talk softly or play rhythmic sounds
 Combine methods
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Sense of Touch
 Sensitive to touch
 around mouth
 on palms and soles of feet
 Use touch to investigate
their world
 Severe pain
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 overwhelms nervous system with stress
hormones
 can be relieved with local anesthesia, sugar
solution, or physical touch
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Senses of
Taste and Smell
Infants
 have a preference for sweet tastes
at birth
 can readily learn to like new tastes
 have odor preferences at birth
 can locate odors and identify mother
by smell from birth
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Sense of Hearing
Newborns
 can hear a wide variety of sounds
 prefer complex sounds to pure tones
 can distinguish between a variety of sound
patterns when only a few days old
 listen longer to human speech than to
nonspeech sounds
 can detect the sounds of any human
language
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Newborn Sense of Vision
 Least developed sense at birth
 Limited visual acuity
 Actively explore environment:
 scan for interesting sights
 track moving objects
 Not yet good at
discriminating colors
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
New Family Adjustment
 Hormones that facilitate
caregiving:
 oxytocin
 prolactin
 estrogens
 Hormonal effects may
depend on experience
 Challenges of early weeks:
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 new roles
 changed schedule
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
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