Health Skills I Unit 101.2 Aseptic Techniques Objectives • Identify the practices of aseptic technique and related terminology. Terms • Contaminated – living organism(s) present on an animate or inanimate surface – floors are always considered contaminated – Septic is another term for contaminated NOT Terms • Clean – removal of foreign matter such as organic material – example • fecal matter, blood, body fluids • Sterile – free of all living microorganisms Terms • Autoclave – process of sterilization that uses heat and steam under pressure to destroy all pathogens including spores and viruses • Disinfect – removal of most pathogens through cleansing solutions Autoclaves • Types of processes used: – Ethylene Oxide – Chemical Vapor – Steam Medical Asepsis (Clean Technique) • refers to practices or procedures used to ensure a clean environment by removing or destroying diseases causing microorganisms after each patient procedure • Importance – healthcare worker has DUTY AND OBLIGATION to patient to do this – must be ongoing battle Surgical Asepsis (Sterile Technique) • refers to all practices and precautions that ensure the environment is free of all microorganisms – aimed at destroying or stopping transmission of ALL microorganisms – special techniques for opening sterile packages, and working from a sterile field must be learned and practiced with precision Principles of Aseptic Technique • Keep sterile field within view • Hold sterile objects above the waist • Avoid spilling solutions on any cloth or disposable sterile drapes. • Keep hands below shoulder level. Use Sterile Technique • whenever entering area of body that is not a natural route of entry • when caring for wounds or burns, performing catheterizations, suctioning, tooth extractions, surgery, etc. • failure to follow these guidelines could cause illness or death to patient Patient Care Guidelines • wash hands before and after patient care, and handling supplies • handle dressing, bandages and tissues according to policy • wrap damp or wet items in waterproof bags • discard disposable items • use equipment and supplies for one patient only • cover breaks in skin with a sterile dressing • prevent cross contamination Patient Care Guidelines • keep food and beverages clean • floors are contaminated • avoid raising dust – airborne – do not shake linens • clean from least soiled to most soiled • discard liquids directly into drain or toilet • avoid spilling and splashing • keep rooms bright, clean, dry, and airy • if in question, ITS CONTAMINATED Open Skin Lesions – healthcare workers with draining lesions or weeping dermatitis, should refrain from direct patient care or food handling – report condition to supervisor for direction as this may vary per facility or department Healthcare Workers Should Be: – *clean and neat – *wash uniform daily – *shower daily, including hair – *have short hair or secure it back – *brush teeth regularly – *proper nail care (follow policy of facility) fake nails may grow fungus under nail deadly to patients – *wear no jewelry Handle Equipment Properly • failure to follow the guidelines for correct technique in handling of equipment could result in serious infections to patient or healthcare worker Proper Cleaning Solutions: – bacteriostatic • slows down or stops growth of bacteria – bacteriocidal • kills bacteria – household bleach solution • 1:10 ratio • kills all pathogens on objects and surfaces cleansed with solution • must be made fresh daily – iodine and alcohol • frequently used on skin for disinfecting Handwashing – *prevents spreading infection – *wash before gloving and after removal of gloves – *wash before & after every patient contact & after exposure to blood or body fluids – *single most important procedure to prevent the spread of disease! Handwashing – *use 3 - 5 ml. of soap – *vigorous friction rubbing not to exceed 15 seconds – *rinse with fingers pointed down – *dry fingertips to wrist – *shut off faucet with clean towel Sanitation of Equipment – clean contaminated, reusable equipment by cleansing with soap/water & brush. Rinse & dry thoroughly before packaging & sterilizing – sterilize reusable equipment that will invade the body or mucous membrane – disinfect reusable equipment used for noninvasive procedures Knowledge Assessment • Compare and contrast the terms contaminated, clean, and sterile. • List the types of autoclaved processes used. • List the principles of aseptic technique. • Understand the principles of patient care guidelines involving asepsis. • Contrast the different cleaning solutions. • Identify key components in hand washing considerations and technique.