Working safely in the construction industry

Report
Working safely
in the
construction
industry
Aims of the Workplace Health and
Safety (WHS) induction training
 To provide a basis for general WHS induction training
only – site specific and work activity induction training
are the responsibility of the employer
 To support the requirements of the nationally
endorsed unit of competency: CPCCOHS1001A Work
safely in the construction industry
 To support the requirements of the National Code of
Practice for Induction Training for Construction Work
Introduction
New laws and new words …
 Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) induction training for
construction now falls under new national laws (Work Health
and Safety Act 2011)
 The new laws use new words:
 PCBU (Persons Conducting a Business or Undertaking) – this means your employer
or the manager of your workplace
 Worker (this is you – or in other words, employees)
 Workplace (any place where a worker goes or is likely to be while at work
 Health and Safety Representative (can be elected by workers and has powers
relating to health and safety)
 The main difference relates to shared responsibility in
workplace health and safety
 Also, idea of ‘reasonably practicable’, ie:
 taking into account the likelihood of hazard/risk occurring, degree of harm,
what the person concerned knows (or ought to know),
availability and suitability of controls, and cost
Introduction
WHS legislative requirements
Outline:
 WHS law:
 why it is important, and the difference between WHS Acts,
regulations, codes of practice and Australian Standards
 Duty of care:
 what it is, who it affects, and the duty of care responsibilities
of:
 Persons Conducting a Business or Undertaking (PCBUs), and
 workers
 Working safely:
 describing safe working practices in construction, activities
which require a licence or permit, and ways to keep the
worksite safe
WHS legislative
requirements
WHS law
Legislation is law passed by Parliament.
It governs many areas, including health and safety
at work. It can be national, or relevant to individual
states and territories
 You need to know the WHS legislation that covers
your job and workplace
 You are required by law to comply with them
 You need to understand how WHS Acts, regulations,
codes and standards affect your work, job and
workplace
WHS legislative
requirements
WHS law
What are the differences between Acts, regulations,
codes of practice and Australian Standards?
• Are law
Acts
• Describe how to provide health and safety
in the workplace
• Are made under the Act
Regulations
• Set out the practical steps to follow to comply with the Act
WHS legislative
requirements
WHS law
Codes of • Give practical guidance on how to legally comply with
Practice
regulations and Acts
• Developed to provide minimum levels of performance or quality
Australian
• Cover hazards, work processes and products
Standards
WHS legislative
requirements
Duty of care
… requires a person to do everything
reasonably practicable to protect themselves
and others from harm.
 It is the legal responsibility of everyone on site
 Persons conducting a business or undertaking
(PCBUs) and supervisors
 workers and sub-contractors
 designers, manufacturers and suppliers
 inspectors etc
WHS legislative
requirements
Duty of care
What are the duty of care
responsibilities of PCBUs?
 To ensure that as far as is reasonably possible,
workers are safe from injury and risk to health while at
work
 To provide a safe working environment,
facilities, systems and equipment
(eg access to toilets and drinking water)
 To provide workers with WHS information
and training
WHS legislative
requirements
Duty of care
What are the duty of care
responsibilities of workers?
 To cooperate with (or help) the PCBU on health and
safety matters
 To take reasonable care to protect the
health and safety of yourself and others
who may be affected by your actions
at work, eg
 keeping your work area safe and tidy
 telling other workers about hazards you have noticed,
such as tools or equipment which are faulty or might
need repair
WHS legislative
requirements
Working safely
Safe working practices means working in a way
that minimises risk to yourself, other people,
equipment, materials, the environment, and
work processes
 Do not take unnecessary risks
 Always look out for hazards
 Always use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
 If you must smoke, do so only in designated areas
 Keep your work area clean and tidy
 Enter and leave the workplace using proper routes
 Never attend work under the influence of drugs or alcohol
 etc
WHS legislative
requirements
Working safely
The PCBU should give you information about safe
systems and procedures at work.
 Boundaries, entry and exit points (eg emergency exits)
 Location of any hazards
 Location of first aid equipment
 Procedures for handling and disposing of materials




and waste (especially if toxic or hazardous)
How to access amenities such as drinking water and toilets
PPE which must be worn in the workplace
Other systems to help you to work safely, eg to limit dust
etc
WHS legislative
requirements
Working safely
Which activities need licences
or permits?
 Scaffolding (over 4 metres)
 Asbestos removal
 Dogging
 Rigging
 Crane operation
 Hoist operation
 Plumbing
Always check to make
sure you know what you
need to have to
do your work
 Gasfitting
 etc
WHS legislative
requirements
Working safely
Tips for keeping the worksite safe:
 Storage of materials and equipment:
 safe and organised manner so they can be retrieved again safely
 in accordance with MSDS and legislation
 cannot fall on a person or cause injury (eg through projection of sharp edges)
 flammable and combustible materials – do not store more than is necessary!
 Removal of debris:
 should continually be removed to prevent build up
 build up could affect entry/exit to a site and pose a fire hazard
 disposal must not create a risk to the environment
 Litter:
 includes things such as food scraps and wrappings, paper etc
 must be disposed of in proper containers (eg garbage bins)
 disposal must not pose a risk to the environment
WHS legislative
requirements
Working safely
Tips for keeping the worksite safe:
 Site disturbance:
 vehicles should always use nominated routes to limit mud soil etc tracking
onto public roads
 loads should be covered to prevent materials or rubbish from escaping
 Dust:
 needs to be controlled
 water should be applied to roads and stockpiles to limit dust and
pollution of stormwater systems
 Good housekeeping:
 essential to a safe work site
 every-day cleanliness, tidiness and good order in your work area
 machinery and equipment maintenance so they are in
safe and efficient working order
WHS legislative
requirements
Risk management
Outline:
 Managing risk:
 what it is, and how it is assessed and managed
 Common construction hazards:
 What they are, how they are identified, and what you should do
 Controlling hazards:
 outlining ways to control hazards using the hierarchy of control
Risk
management
Managing risk
Risk:
the likelihood of a hazard causing injury or harm
5 basic principles of risk management:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Identify hazards (find or see)
Assess the risks involved (think about and check)
Consult and report ensuring the involvement of relevant
people (talk and tell)
Control the hazard (stop or prevent it)
Review to identify change or improvement
(check and reflect)
Risk
management
Managing risk
Risk assessment:
means gathering information so that you
can make a clear and educated decision about what needs to be
done to lower the risk as far as possible
Risk assessment is based on 3 factors to think about and check:
The “likelihood” that it will do harm (probability)
The “severity” of the harm it could do (consequence)
The “number” of times people could be affected by it (frequency)
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Hazard:
any thing (including an intrinsic property of a
thing) or situation with the potential to cause injury or harm
 Hazardous substances and dangerous goods can include:
 asbestos, synthetic mineral fibres, cement dust, chemicals and
solvents, custom wood and wood dust etc
 It can take a long time after exposure before
hazardous substances can affect your health
 You must use PPE for protection
 You must follow correct procedures for handling and
disposal of some materials (never try to remove asbestos)
 Sometimes specialist training is needed before a material
or good can be handled – check if you are unsure
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Asbestos (biggest killer of workers in Australia)
 Found in many areas including bonded form (around eaves,
ceilings, wet areas etc), and friable form (around hot water pipes etc)
 Never try to remove asbestos – law states that people who assess and
remove asbestos must be licensed
 You must immediately report the presence (or suspected presence) of
asbestos
 Chemicals and solvents
 Always check the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
before handling
 MSDS details safe handling and disposal procedures
 If in doubt, isolate and check
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Dust (wood or cement)
 Cement and gypsum-based materials found in things like
mortar, concrete and adhesives
 Excavation, demolition, traffic flow can cause dust problems
 Always comply with MSDSs, wear approved respirator, eye protection
and gloves, wet down dusty areas, keep vehicle speed down, use wet
methods when cutting, dispose of safely etc
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Noise
 Usually caused by vehicles/traffic, machinery and heavy
equipment, hand and explosive powered tools
 Can cause hearing loss or damage, stress, headaches,
problems with communication etc
 Always wear protection (eg plugs, ear muffs etc)
 Be aware of appropriate sound
levels or decibels
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Manual handling
 Activities that require you to use force to lift, lower,
push, pull, carry or move a load commonly cause
injuries (eg breaks, twists, sprains, ligament
damage to shoulders, hands, neck, back and knees
etc)
 Consider things such as the distance the object is
to be moved, using mechanical aids, your physical
abilities etc
 If awkward or heavy, do not attempt by yourself
– organise others to help
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Plant & equipment
 Use only if safe to use and fit for the purpose intended
 Live electrical equipment must never be worked on
until de-energised and/or physically isolated by a qualified person
(shut down and tag or lock out)
 Knife blades must be covered when not in use,
and locked in place when in use
 Always look out for:
 overhead power lines
 exposed, moving mechanical components (eg gears, drive shafts, pulleys etc)
 areas where there could be a release of steam, chemicals,
pressurised fluids, or biological hazards
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 UV radiation
 Comes from the sun as well as lasers, welding flashes and
high intensity lighting
 Passes through the skin and harms living body cells (sunburn) –
eyes are also at risk
 Be sensible and protect your eyes and skin – wear correct PPE
(welding mask, sunglasses, hats, long sleeved shirts, sunscreen
etc)
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Electrical safety
 Hazards include energised equipment, electrical wires, power cords and
tools, installed photovoltaic (solar) panels etc
 You must report all electric shocks and short circuits
 Australian Standards and WHS legislation demand regular
routine inspections of electrical equipment
 All electrical equipment must be tested and tagged, earthed
properly, and unplugged when changing blades and fittings
 Electrical leads should be suspended off the ground
 Portable equipment must include a residual current device (RCD)
 especially if equipment is exposed to potential damage or often being moved
 Where a portable generator is being used, make sure wiring is correct and
outlet socket, generator and frame have a common earth wired
by a licensed electrician
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Traffic & mobile plant (especially when mobile)
 You must be licensed to operate, and able to safely control
 You must carry out all pre-operational checks when starting or
taking over equipment (including warning and hazard signs
and lights)
 You must follow rules and procedures,
eg work within specified areas, observe and
obey warning signs, be aware of people and
objects around you when working, replace or
check guards before and after use etc
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Working at height and falls
 Falls are one of the most common forms
of serious injury or death in construction
 Risk is fall from height or from one level to another
 Where there is risk of a fall, the PCBU must ensure as far as
reasonably practicable that work is done on the ground or a solid
construction
 Where risk can’t be eliminated (hierarchy of control), protection
must be given to you and used, regardless of the height
 fall prevention device or work positioning system or fall arrest system
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Working at height and falls (continued)
 There are a number of things that must be
considered or done, eg:
 doing as much work as possible at ground level
 protecting people below
 using scaffolds or mobile work platforms if required – scaffolding
above 4 metres must be erected by a licensed scaffolder
 when working above 2 metres, kick boards and hand railings
must be used
 using edge protection or safety harnesses
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Falling objects
 You must take care to ensure that objects do not fall onto
or hit people doing construction work and in nearby areas
(eg public footpath, road, other area beside your workplace)
 Falling objects include equipment, material, tools and debris that can fall or
be sent out sideways or upwards (eg tools falling off a working platform,
rocks and soil falling into a trench, falling bricks bounced off the side of a
building, concrete pre-cast panels falling over etc)
 Use correct danger tags and warning signs
 Ensure safe practices such as exclusion zones around
scaffolding and adjoining areas, perimeter containment
screening, materials never dropped from a scaffold, safe ways to
raise and lower objects etc
KEEP OUT FA L L I N G
OBJECTS
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Excavations (including trenches)
 A trench is a deep hole, channel, ditch, or cut in the ground
 An excavation is a hole or cavity made by excavating
 All trenches and excavations must be barricaded or flagged off to warn
people of their location and to prevent accidental or unauthorised entry
 Generally, entry is not allowed immediately next to trenches/excavations
that are 1.5 metres in depth or more (unless sides are benched, battered or
supported)
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Confined spaces
 A confined space is an enclosed (or partly enclosed) space that:
• is not designed or intended to be occupied by a person
• is (or is designed or intended to be) at normal atmospheric
pressure while a person is in the space
• is (or is likely to be) a risk to health and safety from:

unsafe oxygen levels

contaminants in the air (gas, vapours, dust etc) which can cause a fire or explosion

harmful concentrations of contaminants in the air

engulfment (eg by materials such as sand or water)
• eg pits, tanks, ducts, pipes, pressure vessels, roof spaces etc
 Covered by an Australian Standard
 Requires special training and a confined space entry permit
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Unplanned collapse
 Poses a significant danger to construction workers
 Can involve:
 collapse of a building or structure (or part of a building or structure) which is weak
or unstable before it has been completed
 collapse, overturning or failure of a load-bearing part of a lift, crane, hoist, lifting
gear or scaffolding
 collapse of shoring or an excavation which is more than 1.5 metres deep
 Be aware of potential hazards and risks and comply with procedures,
regulations and Australian Standards (especially those related to
maximum load limits of load bearing equipment)
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Hot and cold working environments
 Some work sites and tasks may expose you to hot or cold working
environments with particular risks (eg work outdoors → UV radiation, wind
chill, thermal hazards etc)
 The effects of heat and cold on the body are affected by the environment
through:
 air temperature (how hot or cold the surrounding air is)
 humidity (the moisture content in the air)
 air movement including wind speed and air circulation
 radiant heat (from the sun, given out by plant, buildings, equipment etc)
 You must understand the difference between discomfort, and hypothermia,
heat stroke and heat exhaustion which can mean serious medical conditions
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Infectious diseases
 Found in blood and other body fluids (eg HIV, hepatitis etc)
 Transmission will usually occur if:
• hypodermic needles or other sharp instruments contaminated with
infected blood or body fluids penetrate the skin
• infected blood or body fluids splash into your eye or other mucous
membranes or onto broken skin
 Some work activities have increased risk, eg plumber
exposed to syringe left in toilet, workers using sharp
instruments or tools that might penetrate skin
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards
on a construction site
 Infectious diseases (continued)
 You must ensure that you protect yourself and others
(eg use PPE, cover wounds, cuts and abrasions with
dressings, use proper cleaning materials such as bleach, etc)
 If exposure happens, you need to act immediately, eg:
• wash exposed body part with soap and water or 70% alcohol rub
• eyes - rinse with tap water or saline
• mouth – spit out and rinse continually with water
• notify your supervisor and health and safety representative as soon as
possible
Risk
management
Common construction hazards
Identifying hazards: where you recognise
that a hazard exists, or may exist
Be observant and aware, ie:
 Frequent inspections of your workplace
 Talk to people to find out about hazards, or let them know about
hazards you have found
 Check workplace records of previous hazards, injuries and accidents to
give you ideas about potential hazards
 Report hazards or dangerous situations you have identified so that all
workers can be safe!
Risk
management
Controlling hazards
What is hazard control?
 Limiting the dangers of a hazard
 Risk management, ie identifying the best way to reduce
the risk posed by a hazard
 Elimination is always best if
reasonably practicable
 If elimination is not possible, use the hierarchy of control
Risk
management
Controlling hazards
Hierarchy of control
Control Measure 1:
Substituting: replacing the hazard causing
the risk with something that causes less risk
(eg using safer equipment)
Isolating: isolating the hazard from any
person exposed to it (eg erecting a physical barrier)
Engineering: creating a safer
environment by making improvements to
equipment or processes
Risk
management
Controlling hazards
Hierarchy of control
If the risk remains, Control Measure 2:
Administrative control: measures used to
limit risk (eg providing training, warning
signs etc)
If the risk remains, Control Measure 3:
PPE: used to minimise remaining risk so
far as is reasonably practicable by
providing extra protection
Risk
management
Controlling hazards
Using the hierarchy of control
 First conduct a risk assessment
 Elimination is always the best option – if not possible,
apply the measures in the hierarchy of control in order (ie
from Measure 1 through to Measure 3)
 Important: the highest control in the hierarchy that is able
to be achieved should be put into place immediately – this
is the starting point for safety
 If a single control is not enough to manage the risk, a
combination of controls may be used
A risk assessment should be done
every time a control is used
Risk
management
WHS communication
Outline:
 WHS communication, information and documents
 why communication is important, where to get WHS information,
types of WHS documentation, and how to raise health and safety
issues
 WHS personnel:
 looking at Health and Safety Committees and Representatives, and
others who have a role in health and safety
 Safety signs and symbols:
 what they are, what the colours and symbols mean, and looking at
types of signs, safety tags and lockout
 Reporting hazards, incidents and injuries:
 why reporting is necessary, how it is done, who needs to be told, and
workers compensation
WHS
communication
WHS communication, information
& documents
WHS consultation is required by law
Consultation is about encouraging cooperation and partnerships
between PCBUs and workers to ensure
workplace health and safety. It means:



sharing WHS information with workers
giving workers an opportunity to express opinions
about resolving WHS issues
valuing the opinions of workers when making
decisions/changes to do with health and safety
Consultation is an important way to find
out information, and raise concerns
WHS
communication
WHS communication, information
& documents
WHS information
Find out information by:


Reading, listening and asking questions
Talk to people who are not at your workplace (eg people at
your state or territory workplace safety authority
Written information is available on the internet
Search for “WHS+construction+[insert your topic]”
WHS
communication
WHS communication, information
& documents
WHS documentation
 Several types of WHS documents at your workplace
 They provide information about health and safety, and methods
for reporting, eg:







Construction documentation and plans
Safe Work Method Statements (SWMS)
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
Accident, incident and injury reports and proformas
Reports of dangerous incidents or near misses
Risk assessments
WHS
communication
WHS communication, information
& documents
Raising WHS issues
 It is important that you have an opportunity to raise issues about
health and safety in your workplace (and that you do so!)
 Issues can be raised verbally (by speaking to someone), or in
writing (letter, email etc)
 Opportunities to raise issues or concerns can include:




toolbox talks (eg at smoko)
WHS meetings
talking with the Health and Safety Representative for your workplace
during formal workplace consultation which would be organised
by the PCBU
Good communication leads to good WHS outcomes
WHS
communication
WHS personnel
What is a Health and Safety Committee?
 Brings together workers and management to assist in the
development and review of health and safety procedures
 Meets formally (3 monthly) to discuss and decide on safety issues
 The Committee can:

make recommendations on safety
 look at ways to improve safety levels
 recommend improvements to work procedures, training etc
Know who the representative for your workplace is on the Health
and Safety Committee – this is the person to whom you can
speak about health and safety problems or concerns
WHS
communication
WHS personnel
Health and Safety Representative:
A person nominated and appointed to represent health and safety for
your workplace and its workers
Responsibilities:




consulting and cooperating with management and
workers
providing WHS information
assisting workers to raise OHS issues
securing participation and involvement of workers
Other key people who have responsibility for WHS are
your supervisor(s), project manager, people managing your
company, the first aider, emergency services personnel etc
WHS
communication
Safety signs and symbols
What do the colours on safety signs mean?
 Australian Standards specify colour, size and shape
 Part of the administrative controls within the hierarchy of control
 Important communication tools - their message must be followed
WHS
communication
Safety signs and symbols
Safety signs are divided into four groups:
1. Regulatory signs give information on
legal obligations in WHS – they are
divided into 3 types:

Prohibition signs – tell you
something you must not do

Mandatory signs – tell you something that
you must do

Limitation or restriction signs – show that
there are limits on an activity, or
use of a building or place
WHS
communication
Safety signs and symbols
2. Hazard signs include danger signs (warn of
dangers or risks to your health) and
warning signs (warn you of a hazard that
may threaten your life
3. Emergency information signs tell you
where emergency safety equipment is kept
and where you can exit a building
4. Fire signs identify where to find fire
alarms, fire equipment and exits
WHS
communication
Safety signs and symbols
Safety tags and systems
 Test tags attached to electrical equipment by an
authorised person after it has been tested
 Out of service tags identify equipment that is
faulty or being serviced
 Safety tags (or danger tags) needed when more
than one person has control or access to an
isolation/activation point
 Lockout system used with safety tags to
prevent operation of equipment
by non-authorised persons
Only the person who placed a tag/lockout can remove it
WHS
communication
Reporting hazards, incidents
& injuries
Reporting is vital to maintain a safe and healthy workplace
 All incidents, regardless of whether there is an injury or not must
be reported to the correct person
 Reporting can prevent repeated or new hazards, incidents and
injuries
 Sometimes, there are legal requirements to report serious WHS
issues to people or authorities outside your workplace, ie where
there is a death or serious injury or illness or dangerous incident
 These are called ‘notifiable incidents’ – they must be notified
Your supervisor or Health and Safety Representative
can give you information
WHS
communication
Reporting hazards, incidents
& injuries
How are hazards, incidents and injuries reported?
 Promptly to the relevant person (verbal and/or written):

notifiable incidents must be reported to the relevant
government authority
 depending on the type of incident, emergency services may
also need to be notified
 Using the correct report form or “proforma”
 PCBU must forward all hazard, incident and injury reports
relating to legal WHS requirements and keep WHS records
 Serious injuries and incidents must be reported immediately
(verbally) and followed-up with a written report (within 48 hours)
WHS
communication
 Check with supervisor/Health and Safety Representative
Reporting hazards, incidents
& injuries
Workers compensation
 Means you can receive medical treatment and assistance if you are
injured at work
 All workers have a right to receive workers compensation
 Covers you for loss of wages and medical expenses to varying degrees
(depending on the circumstances)
 Procedures need to be followed:

complete relevant claim for compensation form as soon as possible

attach medical certificates and expenses (eg receipts) that occurred
as a result of the incident

keep a copy of the form and all documents

other procedures may be needed depending on your workplace/situation

when returning to work, you must obtain a medical clearance
WHS
communication
Incident response
Outline:
 General response procedures:
 defining incidents and emergencies, and procedures for response
and notifying the authorities
 First aid:
 looking at who is responsible for first aid, and types of equipment
 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):
 what it is, why it is important, who needs to supply it, and common
examples of PPE
 Fire safety equipment:
 common causes of fire, types of fire safety equipment, and what you
should do in the event of a fire
Incident
response
General response procedures
An incident is:
an accident resulting in death, personal injury or damage to property,
or a dangerous incident or near miss which does not cause injury, but
may pose a risk to people or property

Near misses and dangerous incidents can include:
 damage to any plant, machinery or equipment that is likely to endanger the





health or safety of people in the workplace
damage or collapse of the load bearing member or control device of a crane,
hoist, conveyor, lift, plant or scaffolding
collapse or failure of excavations and related shoring
collapse or partial collapse of a building or structure
an uncontrolled fire, explosion or escape of gas, steam or dangerous substances
any other occurrence involving imminent risk of fire, explosion or escape of
hazardous substances; risk of death or serious personal injury to
any person; or risk of substantial damage to property
Incident
response
General response procedures
An emergency is:
a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that
requires immediate action. It presents (or may present)
a risk of serious injury or death to people on the work site

Emergencies in a construction workplace can result from events
such as:
 a chemical spill
 structural collapse (eg scaffolding, crane etc)
 fire
 toxic emissions
 vehicle and mobile plant accidents etc
Incident
response
General response procedures
Basic emergency response:




You should know your site emergency response procedures before an
emergency happens, including who needs to know and their contacts
Procedures are written, eg in the emergency plan, evacuation plan and
procedures, incident notification procedures etc (check with your
supervisor)
You must stay within your abilities and authority (ie don’t do anything
you are not authorised to do, or are not capable of doing)
Do not move people who are injured unless they will be in further
danger if you don’t
In an emergency, remember to KRO:
K eep calm
R aise alarm
O btain help
Incident
response
General response procedures
Emergency Plan
Helps to prevent panic, poor judgement under pressure, and
breakdown of normal paths of communication and authority
 Outlines quick responses to eliminate or control danger and
damage
 Provides a fail-safe communication system
 Includes procedures to be followed in an emergency, eg:

 for reporting a fire or other emergency
 for emergency evacuation (including exit routes)
 to be followed by workers who need to remain to operate
critical plant/equipment before they evacuate
 to account for all workers after evacuation
 to be followed by those performing rescue/medical duties
Incident
response
General response procedures
Notifying emergency services

Quickly decide who needs to know depending on the type of incident:
fire brigade, ambulance, police, or onsite emergency personnel such as
first aider/supervisor
Pass on the following information quickly and clearly:







The type of emergency (what has happened)
The location including street address etc (where the emergency is)
What action has been taken by people at the scene (what is being done)
If there are any injuries to people (type and nature of injuries if you know)
Whether emergency services have been contacted
Your name (who is calling)
How they can make further contact with you if needed
Remember not to hang up until you get instructions or advice on
the next steps to take!
Incident
response
First aid
Who is responsible?
The PCBU has a legal obligation to provide first aid equipment and
a trained first aider at your workplace
 Only people who have received first aid training (and are currently
qualified) to provide first aid can actually give it
 A notice stating the name, contact number and work location of
the first aider must be readily visible
 There should also be a first aid plan that details first aid
procedures and equipment

A qualified first aider must be appointed to be in charge
of the first aid kit and first aid room.
They must be accessible to all workers and ready to
give first aid when needed.
Incident
response
First aid
3 types of first aid
equipment:
Depends on the size of your
workplace, ie A is the largest, and
C is the smallest)
The location of the
First Aid Kit
needs to be clearly marked
by an approved and
recognised sign. It may
include resuscitators and resuscitation
kits – these can only be operated by
trained people
Incident
response
First aid
Do you have to give first aid?
You should not provide first aid unless you are qualified
(certified) to do so
 If you come across an incident where first aid is needed, you must
immediately notify the first aider and help them, eg by calling
emergency services, keeping unauthorised people away etc
 First aid can reduce the severity of an injury or illness
 First aid incidents need to be reported and documented

Proper first aid gives the initial and immediate
attention to a person suffering an injury or illness –
in some cases, it can mean the difference between
life and death
Incident
response
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Designed to give protection and limit or avoid damage
(it is not designed to prevent injury)

Lowest control method in the hierarchy of control – you still need to
think and act safely in your work and actions

Must be supplied by the PCBU

The purpose of each item of PPE must be explained to you

You must be trained to fit and use each item of PPE correctly

Never deliberately misuse or damage PPE
Incident
response
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Common examples of PPE:

Headwear (eg hard hat, sun hats etc)

Eye protection (goggles, welding mask etc)

Hearing protection (ear plugs, muffs etc required for
noise)

Respiratory (lung/breathing protection –
full face or ½ face mask depending on the hazard)

Hand protection (gloves)

Body protection (clothing such as overall, coveralls
and aprons, high visibility clothing and vests etc)

Feet protection (footwear which is steel-capped,
non slip etc)
Incident
response
Fire safety equipment
Fire causes and prevention


Fire can be chemical, electrical, started by explosion or friction, caused
by flammable materials, mechanical/welding etc
Mostly can be avoided by careful planning and thinking about safety
Fire hazards can be reduced by:






Regularly removing built up waste and dust
Safe keeping and handling of flammable materials
Using and obeying warning signs
Working safely (eg not welding near chemicals)
Smoking only in designated areas
Regular inspection of electrical equipment, etc
Fire safety equipment must be assessed for suitability, and
maintained in good working order by a trained person
Incident
response
Fire safety equipment
Types of equipment

Signs (information, warnings and reminders)

Blankets (easy to use – good for kitchen fires)

Hose reels and mains (available for firefighting purposes
if required by building codes and regulations)

Breathing apparatus (needed by firefighters when
firefighting, or exposed to high temperatures, lack of
Incident
oxygen, toxic substances etc)
response
Fire safety equipment
Types of fire extinguishers

Water extinguisher (when the main fire hazards are
either wood, paper, textiles and rubbish)

Carbon dioxide extinguisher (for fires involving live
electrical appliances, and small flammable liquid fires
such as petrol, paint and solvents)

Powder type extinguisher (covers a wide range of risks
including flammable liquids and energised electrical
equipment)

Foam extinguisher (used on A&B flammable liquids such
as petrol, paint and solvents)
Incident
response
Fire safety equipment
If there is a fire:

Keep calm, Raise alarm, Obtain help

Follow emergency procedures and plans for your workplace (act quickly
to limit danger to yourself and others)

Use first-attack firefighting equipment if:
 it appears able to extinguish the fire
 size of fire is not a hazard to your safety
 level of smoke is not an obvious health hazard - remember any
actions to extinguish a fire will increase smoke and loss of visibility
 a secure escape route is available

Decide on the need for evacuation by considering things such as the
emergency plan, level of assessed risk etc

Incident
response
Notify appropriate people (eg fire warden) and follow instructions
Remember …

Good workplace health and safety is a legal responsibility of
everyone in the construction workplace

Be watchful and aware at all times to identify potential hazards
and risks

Always work safely and comply with WHS procedures,
regulations and Australian Standards (eg using PPE)

Get involved – participate in WHS consultation and
communication practices to improve health and safety

Listen, read, and talk about WHS matters – good
communication leads to good outcomes

Know what to do and who to contact before an incident,
accident or emergency happens
Summary

similar documents