Formal and informal tone

Report
Expository Writing
Formal Voice
Voice
Voice is one of the 6 traits of writing.
It is composed of:
• Tone
• Purpose
• Connection to the audience
Tone
• Tone is the writer’s style in a piece. It can be
formal, or informal.
Purpose
• The author’s purpose is the reason (s)he
wrote the text. It could be to:
• Persuade
• Inform
• Describe
Connection to the audience
• Good writers consider their audience. They
ensure that the tone is appropriate for both
the audience and purpose of the piece. Good
writers show the reader what matters most
and how (s)he thinks and feels about the
topic.
Tone
• Formal tone is impersonal.
• It does not use personal pronouns such as: I,
we, me, my, or our.
• Informal tone is personal.
• It uses personal pronouns such as: I, we, me,
my, or our.
Informal vs. Formal
So, what are the differences…?
• Informal language is… • Formal language is…
– every day
– casual
– relaxed
– no strict rules (don't
care much about
applying grammar
rules )
– proper
– academic
– official, legal
– grammatically correct
(apply correct
language grammar &
rules)
Context
• Where do you use these different types of
language in both spoken and written
language?
• Make a list of places / situations with your
elbow partner.
#1 Informal vs. Formal
• Informal: May use
clichés or slang
Clichés
– easier said than done
– work like a dog
– face the music
• Informal: The teacher
said that it was better
late than never.
• Informal: That new car
of yours is sick.
• Formal: Avoid clichés or slang
Slang
–
–
–
–
chill out
sketchy
cool
Can you think of any other
slang words?
• Formal: The teacher said that
he would accept late
assignments because he
wouldn’t want students to miss
a learning opportunity.
• Formal: The new car you
purchased is quite impressive.
#2 Informal vs. Formal
• Informal: May use
imprecise (vague)
or informal words
• Formal: Avoid
imprecise (vague) or
informal words
Imprecise: thing, stuff
Precise: reasons, causes,
aspects, concerns
Informal: Mr. Miller
said some things to
explain why the war
happened.
Formal: The author
explained some of the
reasons for the start of
the Balkan War.
#2 Informal vs. Formal cont.
Informal
Formal
good
magnificent
just like
for example
flunking
failing
• Informal: The food at DeMille’s is totally good.
• Formal: Can you think of a formal sentence?
• The cuisine at DeMille’s is superb.
#3 Informal vs. Formal
• Informal: May use
contractions, hesitation
fillers or abbreviated
forms.
• Formal: Avoid
contractions, hesitation
fillers or abbreviated
forms.
• Contractions: it’s,
they’re, can’t
Formal: What is the
formal way to write the
previous informal
sentence?
• Employees should not
use their cells phones
too much during work
hours.
Informal: Employees
shouldn’t use their cells
phones too much during
work hours.
#3 Informal vs. Formal cont.
• Hesitation fillers:
– well
– let me think
– hmm
– like
• Informal: Well, this experience is one I will
never forget.
• Formal: Therefore, this is an experience I will
never forget.
#3 Informal vs. Formal cont.
• Abbreviated forms:
– asap
– cuz
– cause
– bc
– btw
• Informal: We will get to the conference asap.
• Formal: We arrived at the conference as soon
as we could.
“Fast Car” Activity
• Look at the lyrics for “Fast Car” by Tracy
Chapman. Are they formal or informal?
• Let’s look at the first verse together.
Fast Car
Informal
Formal
You got a fast car
Your possess a rapid vehicle
And I want a ticket to go anywhere
I desire a ticket to travel to any destination
Maybe we make a deal
Perhaps an agreement can be reached
Maybe together we can get somewhere
Perhaps traveling together is an option
Anyplace is better
Many locations are preferable
Starting from zero got nothing to lose
Insignificant beginnings risk minor losses
Maybe we'll make something
Perhaps we will create a profit
But me myself I got nothing to prove
However I have naught to establish
“Fast Car” Activity
• Look at the lyrics for “Fast Car” by Tracy
Chapman. Are they formal or informal?
• Let’s look at the first verse together.
• With your elbow partner, rewrite the lyrics to
one verse so they are formal.
Tone
Formal
Informal
To distinguish
To tell the difference
To consider
To think about
We will
We’ll
Firstly
To start with
Secondly/besides/furthermore
Another thing/ not only that
Lastly
The most important thing is
However/ on the other hand
But/though
Thus/ consequently
So
Many
Lots of/ tons of/ loads of

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