CH 7 The Nominating Process

CH 7 The Nominating Process
Who will each party select to be their
candidate for President?
• Every four years, candidates in the parties
begin efforts to get their parties to select
them as the candidate to run for president.
• The effort begins at least a year or two ahead
as they “test the political waters” and
continues to about two months before the
national election.
• Each tries to get the most votes in various
caucus and primary elections in many states.
• Nomination 178
• The naming of those who will seek political
• Caucus 180
• A group of like-minded people who meet to
select candidates they will support in an
The Primary Election
• Direct primary 182
• Intra-party election
• Blanket primary 183
• Any voter, regardless of party, may vote for
any candidates on the ballot.
The Primary Election
• Runoff primary 184
• Held only if there is no clear winner of an
earlier primary.
• Closed primary 182
• Registered party voters may only vote for their
parties’ candidates for nomination.
• Copy: Some political offices are simple to run
• Non-partisan election
• 184 candidates have no party identification.
• judges
• Actual elections decide who will win control of
a political office.
• They must be run in an honest fashion to keep
• Campaigning is very expensive and needs
• Whether politicians are working for ordinary
voters or big donors is a serious controversy
• Absentee voting
• 189 registered people may vote by mail
before election day
• Coattail effect
• 190 candidates in small or weak positions get more
powerful political people to speak for them or show
• Polling place
• 190 location in a precinct where people go and vote.
• Ballots are collected from here and taken to a central
counting location.
Campaign Finance
• Political Action Committee (PAC)
• 197 special interests use these to support politicians
and parties
– Money
– Advertising/”information”
• Ike
• Time for some Campaigning
EC: Hard money
• 201
• Money raised on spent to elect candidates for
Congress and the White House.
• Limited and regulated by current campaign
finance laws.
EC: Soft money
Funds given to party organizations
Usually for campaign purposes
“party-building activities”
Candidate recruitment
Voter registration
Get-out-the-vote drives
Not limited or regulated by campaign finance
• A loophole that candidates take advantage of.
Hwk Concepts, Class Work, to Know
• Concepts: Ch 7, pp. 178-205
• EC: Why are nominations so important? (2)
– 178 narrow the field down
– Voters have more choices
The Primary Election
• Images:
• 182 question
• The cartoon points out the odd situation
AFTER two candidates in the same party were
attacking each other during the primary, and,
then, the loser must say they supported the
winner all the time so the party can win
against the other party’s candidate.
The Primary Election
• Images:
• 183 question
• California has an open, public declaration primary
• 184 question,
• Graph suggests that voter interest has declined.
• + what is the possible effect on propositions and
• People might not take the election seriously and not go
to vote.
• Images:
• 193 question,
• Recorded information is sent to a central
collection point electronically
• Done from many precincts at once, as it
• + is this system trustworthy? Explain
• Student should support with facts from text.
• What different forms of ballots are there in the
United States?
– 191 Australian, full list, secret vote
– Office-group, names listed by office,
– Party-column, lists candidates by party, good for straightticket voting.
– Sample, model ballots for upcoming elections, showing
what real ballot will look like.
– Bedsheet: a ballot so full of candidates and measures that
it is difficult to make intelligent decisions.
Electronic Voting
• 193 Question
• How are votes counted in an electronic voting
• The voting panel sends the completed ballot
to a precinct control unit;
• Each precinct sends its results to a central
control unit, which tallies the votes.
• Images
• 194 question,
• People might be more likely to vote if they can do it from
• + would you vote if this was available to you? Explain.
• Student response should be supported with facts from
• BTW, it IS available in the state of California.
Campaign Finance
– 197 question
– The high cost of media coverage
• TV especially.
Campaign Finance
• Images:
– 199 question,
– The growth of PACs has been a large factor in the
overall increase in campaign spending.
– + what information would make this graph more
– Student response should be supported with facts
from text.
Campaign Finance
• Images:
– 201 questions,
– A hard money is given directly to campaigns.
• Soft money is given and spent indirectly on things such as “voter
registration drives”.
– B the cartoon shows that soft money contributions are
plentiful, due to a lack of government regulation, and benefit
the candidates fully.
– + do you think there is a need for stronger election financing
regulation? Explain.
– Student response should be supported with facts from text.
Campaign Finance
• Images:
– 202 question,
temporary organizations.
– + what kind of technology and techniques make
the scene in the cartoon look antiquated?
– Student response should be supported with facts
from text.
Campaign Finance
• At what level in the election process are
campaigning subsidies most important?
– 196 mostly at the presidential level
Campaign Finance
• How did soft money create a loophole in
federal election finance law?
– 196 is not limited or regulated
– It is not reported
Nomination Process
• Images:
205 questions,
30 A
the GOP and Dem candidates
30 B
they have just finished fighting with other candidates
from their OWN parties.
– 31 It can weaken and divide the party before the
general election.
• Do you think there would be an advantage to
changing the date of elections for State officeholders
from the day of national elections? Give reasons for
your answer.
• Advantages might be that
– voters would think more carefully about the State and
local candidates and issues, and that no candidates would
win because of the coattail effect.
• Disadvantages might be that
– fewer voters would go to the polls to vote for just State
and local candidates.
• What would be the effect on the electoral
process if each precinct did not have its own
polling place?
• It might set an unfair limit on voting. Many
voters might not be able to find transportation
to distant polling places, or they might not be
able to get there in time.
EC: Regard the Cartoon:
what do you see?
EC: Campaign Finance Fairness
How are the candidates portrayed?
As pigs greedily eating (taking the funds)
Who is feeding them?
The US Treasury under the Campaign Finance “Matching
Funds” program aimed at giving poorer candidates money
needed to compete against richer ones.
• What is the cynicism behind the man’s statement?
• This government program is getting increasingly expensive,
but the candidates promise to cut government spending.
Campaign Finance
• How do soft money and hard money differ?
196 soft money is given to political organizations for
Party building activities
Voter registration
It is not regulated
Hard money is given directly to political campaigns
It is regulated by the FEC
Quick Response:
• Is money used for campaign finance (political
donations) “free speech”? Explain your

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