Dutch research on Smart Grids

Report
Smart Grids
Miro Zeman ([email protected])
Paul Voskuilen ([email protected])
Anne Beaulieu ([email protected])
“Reliable, Sustainable and Affordable Energy for Everyone”
“Sustainable business opportunities”
Smart Grids
Drivers and challenges
Global developments in energy systems
 Energy transition towards renewable energy sources
 Energy efficiency and saving
Smart grids
 Improve power system efficiency, reliability, stability, resilience
 Cope with necessary flexibility:
 Facilitate integration of renewable energy
 Reduce electricity use
 Exploit potential of electric cars and storage
Smart Grids
Multi-disciplinary approach
1. Physical system
- Electrical system
(transmission & distribution engineering, power system control & protection)
- New components and automation functions
(energy generation and conversion, storage, power electronics, automatic
controls, DC systems)
2. Smart Energy Management
- use full potential of IT as enabling technology for energy
3. Smart Grids and society
- Markets en policy
(markets, economics and public policy)
- User behavior, security and privacy
Outline
Visit to USA
Netherlands Energy Research Alliance (NERA)
 Seven Dutch public knowledge institutes active in energy
Facilitate national and international cooperation
 Collect expertise of Dutch universities
 Overview of running projects
 Individual roadmaps of leading scholars
Purpose:
 Identify similarity, overlap and complementarity in research
NERA: Netherlands Energy Research Alliance
The Dutch energy landscape
 Alliance of 7 major Dutch public knowledge institutes active in energy
 University presidents and CEOs on Board
 Links with Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI), Dutch
research centres and companies
NERA: Netherlands Energy Research Alliance
One single port of call for energy research
• Create a network with the aim to
make optimal use of the
knowledge and experience of the
NERA-partners
• NERA makes it possible to look
at the Dutch landscape in two
ways:
– by partner: in depth
– by research theme: for
overview
ECN
University of
Groningen
University of
Twente
TU Delft
TNO
FOM
TU
Eindhoven
NERA: Netherlands Energy Research Alliance
One single port of call for partners
 Stimulate energy cooperation in research and innovation in the
Netherlands, Europe and with countries like the US
 Influence the European energy agenda: NERA represents the
Netherlands in the European Energy Research Alliance
(EERA), the public research pillar of the EU Strategic Energy
Technology Plan (SET-Plan).
Smart Grids
NERA roadmaps and agendas
University of Groningen & Energy Academy Europe
 Integral approach on large scale smart grid implementation: from
uncertainty to flexibility
3 Technical Universities
 Microgrids
 PV technology
 Electrical mobility
 Storage
 Intelligent power grid
 Modelling and simulations
 Intelligent hybrid energy systems
Roadmaps and agenda
Integral approach on smart grids
From uncertainty as hazard
to flexibility as asset
Where we want to be?
• Towards flexibility
ICT monitoring
and real world • Decentralised control
research
• Modularity
Systems
approach (social, • Demand follows
production
ecological &
technological) • New distribution of
Collaboration
costs & market
between models structures
interface,
• System integration
interaction,
(gas&elec.)
integration via
How?
•
AND uncertainty
•
•
Impetus?
•
Aging
•
infrastructure •
&renewables
•
Status now?
Control, stability,
production
follows demand
•
Innovation
Regulation
Policy
Climate change
•
Geo-political issues
Public support
•
• license to operate
• customer preference
Energy Academy
A. Beaulieu (RUG)
Roadmaps and agenda
PV roadmap
Ultra-thin IBC
c-Si PV
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
Wafer-based
c-Si solar cells
• High efficiency cell >23%
• Advanced light trapping
• Si surface and contact
area passivation
• Back contact and
metalization design
• Scalable cell architecture
• High efficiency modules > 23%
(Heterojuction, bifacial)
• Novel cost-effective module design
• Aesthetical module design for BIPV
• Integrated PV + storage modules
• Flexible light-weight thin-film
modules
• Hybrid solar cells with high
efficiency >30%: wafer-based Si
(IBC) + thin-film cells, 3/4-terminal
tandems
M. Zeman (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Power electronics roadmap
All things
connected by
power
Long-term Challenges
electronics
• Seamless modular
operation
• Multi-frequency power
Short-term Challenges
systems
• Improved efficiency
• High power to weight
• Improved power density
• Demonstrate WB converters density
• Integration with electromechanics
Low efficiency power
conversion
B. Ferreira (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Electro-mechanics roadmap
All things driven
by electrical
Long-term Challenges machines
Short-term Challenges
•
•
•
•
Low efficiency
drives
• High speed
• High power to weight density
• Fault tolerance
High torque density
High efficiency
Loss analysis
Integration with power
electronics
B. Ferreira, H. Polinder (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Autonomous microgrids roadmap
Long-term Challenges
Large-scale
roll-out
• Experiment with 10-20 real houses
(mostly) off-grid
• Experiment with islanded power quality
Short-term Challenges
• Experiment with interaction of
blocks of 10-20 nearly islanded houses
• Modeling of microgrids
• Model storage technologies • Multi-modal modeling (heat + electricity
+ …)
• Simulating microgrids
• Optimisation algorithms
• Add load-flow calculations
Autonomous • Develop pricing strategies
microgrids
G. Smit (UT)
Roadmaps and agenda
DC microgrid roadmap
DC Microgrids
DC Challenges
AC Challenges
•
•
•
•
AC Microgrids
Planning
Demand response
Load management
Intelligent power
management
• Optimization of
portfolio
• Layout and sizing of microgrids
• DC Systems with high-efficiency,
multiterminal, meshed
• DC Components – conversion,
circuit breakers, arcing
• Modularity
• Power management, control
P. Bauer (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Electrical mobility roadmap
Dynamic charging
Electrical
mobility
• Inductive Charging (stationary)
20 kW, efficiency 93%
• On road Charging with green energy
Smart Charging
• On road Charging of electrical
• Storage recognition
Vehicles combined with solar roads
• Charging technology
• Inductive charging (stationary) and storage
3kW, efficiency 90%
• PV charging house/neighborhood
Electric • V2G, V2H, Impact on grid
with green energy
Vehicles • Charging
(microgrids)
P. Bauer (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Chemical storage roadmap
Solar to fuel
>20% efficiency
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
• Understanding multielectron electrochemical
reduction reactions
• Cheap PV-EC hybrid
devices
PV + Electrolysis
Expensive solar
fuels
• Cheap and abundant
catalysts
• Developing both large and
small scale conversion
systems
B. Dam (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Electricity storage roadmap
Battery capacity
factor 10x higher
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/516961/how-tesla-is-driving-electric-car-innovation/
Low cost/ high
safety batteries
• Na-ion
• Solid state electrolytes
Short-term Challenges
• 200 Wh/kg
• Silicon anodes
• High Voltage
cathodes
Li-ion
batteries
Low cost/ high
performance
• Highest energy density
batteries
• Longest life, lowest cost
grid scale batteries
• Solid state electrolytes
• Safety
• Li-air
• Li-sulphur
• Mg/Ca cells
High energy
density e-storage
(J/kg, J/l, J/$)
• Mobile storage
• Static storage for
day/night
• High efficiency
• Safe
E. Kelder, F. Mulder (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Intelligent power grid roadmap
Active
distribution
Long-term Challenges
grids
Short-term Challenges
Passive
distribution
grids
•
•
•
•
•
Automation
State estimation
Customer engagement
Aggregator services
Congestion management
•
•
•
•
•
Situational awareness
Self healing adaptive control
Price based incentives
Multi agents operation
Integrated optimization
W.L. Kling (TU Eindhoven)
Roadmaps and agenda
Smart planning roadmap
Smart grid
planning
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
•
•
•
•
Demand forecasting
Round the year analysis
Probabilistic evaluation
Congestion management
•
•
•
•
Ancillary services
Adaptive operation
Event driven solutions
Demand side response
Peak related
planning
J.G. Slootweg(TU Eindhoven)
Roadmaps and agenda
Power quality roadmap
Optimal power
quality
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
•
•
•
•
Grid code
obligations
Mitigation measures
Responsibility sharing
Continuous monitoring
Calculation methods
•
•
•
•
Fault ride through
Adaptive voltage control
Decoupling of systems
Customer choice
J.F.G. Cobben (TU Eindhoven)
Roadmaps and agenda
Grid control and protection roadmap
PDC
APPS
Wide-Area
Intelligent
System
WAN
SMU_1
SMU_n
Short-term Challenges
Classical
protection
• Protective relay
modeling&testing
• Protection schemes for
fault interruption
• Developing&testing of
protection algorithms
• WAMPAC architecture
Long-term Challenges
• Load shedding
• Controlled islanding
• Phasor and frequency estimation
algorithms
• Corrective control scheme
• Fault detection and location
M. Popov (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
HVDC transmission roadmap
HVDC Systems
HVDC Connection
HVDC
• Loss and dynamic models
• Power flow control of HVDC
networks
• Loss/cost optimization/trading
• Short circuit analysis
• Multi-level modular converter
technology (AC/DC and DC/DC)
• HVDC cable (materials)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HVDC
Grids
Hybrid connections
DC tapping techniques
DC circuit breakers
Online control & optimization
Diagnostics and monitoring
O&M modelling
System integration
P. Bauer (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Large power system roadmap
Sustainable and
stable pan-EU
hybrid power
Long-term Challenges
system
• 80% electricity from RES
•
Short-term Challenges
•
•
• 35 % electricity from RES
•
• Stability with MT-HVDC
• PMU/WAM based protection •
• Interaction offshore VSC
HVDC and onshore HVAC •
• embedded VSC HVDC
AC dominated • ancillary services from RES •
•
high inertia
• Interaction local and
power system international grids
Low inertia power system
Meshed HVDC grid
Full WAMPAC
Integration of storage
Ancillary services from RES and
distributed VPP
Reliable Integrated HVDC/HVAC
(hybrid) grid
Interaction Elec, Gas, Heat
New EU market design for flexibility
services
M. Van der Meiden (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Grid mathematics roadmap
Powerweb
modelling
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
Component
modelling
• fast solvers for large
transmission grids
• transient models for
distribution grids
• risk analysis for
transmission grid
• optimal power flow
• develop HPC solvers
• models/solvers for combined
transmission and distribution grids
• risk analysis for combined grid
• optimal power flow for combined
grid
• HPC solvers for real time decision
support
K. Vuik (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Intelligent Planning and Scheduling
Robust smart
grid systems
Long-term Challenges
Robust Planning
• Planning of energy
consumption/distribution
with uncertainty
• Large scale distributed
energy scheduling with
performance guarantees
• Methods for large scale
autonomous decision making in the
grid
• Dynamic decoupling of distribution
systems
Conventional
Distribution systems
C. Witteveen (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Intelligent hybrid power systems roadmap
System of
Systems
Image: National Grid Smart Grid Pilot Proposal
Integrated energy systems
• Dynamic links between heat, gas,
power
Smart power grids
• Interaction with socio-economic
systems and (new) energy markets
• Stability and scalability limits
• Cyber-physical (big) data analytics
• Models of hybrid systems
for efficiency and operations
(IT, power, etc.)
• Integration of new
technologies (RES, DC, etc.)
Centralized, • Resilience and robustness of ITbacked power systems
isolated
P. Palensky (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Intelligent Energy Systems roadmap
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
Smart
Metering
• Dynamic pricing for
specific local energy
usage and generation
• Data usage for network
planning and operations
• Definition of future energy
actors, roles and
responsibilities
Ubiquitous
Smart Energy
Systems
• Robust and scalable markets and
pricing for energy supply/demand
matching in smart grids
• ICT using sensors and data for
energy and network management
• Fully-automatic energy
management in homes and
buildings
• Planning and operations of energy
networks with multiple actors
• ICT-based smart energy systems
H. La Poutre (CWI/TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
System integration roadmap
Long-term Challenges
Short-term Challenges
Isolated
solutions
• Demand response aligned
with network management
• Interrelation between
different flexibility sources
• Market design to
incentivize flexibility
• International
harmonization of
energy and CO2
policies
Joint
technological &
institutional
transition
towards RES
P. Herder (TU Delft)
Roadmaps and agenda
Smart grid modelling roadmap
Understanding
and shaping the
Long-term Challenges emergence of the
smart energy
• Socio-technical modelling
system
Short-term Challenges
Integrating
Renewables
• Assessing Available
Flexibility & Adequacy
• Analysis of RES
variability & uncertainty
• Modelling Customer
Participation
lab, a dashboard for grid
operators, business
developers, and policy
makers
• Assessing implementation
of smart solutions
depending on the business
models and strategies of the
actors involved, government
policies
Z. Lukszo (TU Delft)
Smart grids
Collaboration
• Outline of research interests and goals
• Purpose: more efficient research and possibilities of
collaboration.
• Preliminary targets:




Combining (clear) goals on research topics
Researcher exchange – sharing knowledge
Sharing data/results of previous and current research projects
Joint research programs
Smart grids
US-Netherlands Collaboration on Smart Grid Evolution
Cooperation Between Smart Cities & Communities
NL - USA
Public Knowledge & Data Exchange
Paul Burghardt
Smart grids
US-Netherlands Collaboration on Smart Grid Evolution
Cooperation Between Smart Cities & Communities
Levels and activities
Testbeds:
Intelligent power management
Electrical mobility & storage
hardware in the loop…
Research:
Data visualization (measured data &GIS)-exchange of researchers
Micro-grids autonomy
Models for combined transmission and distribution grids
Agent-based modeling
Research coordination -sharing lessons learned NERA
NL case: Couperus
Real world pilots:
deployment…
Smart Grids
Let’s join forces where possible.
“Reliable, Sustainable and Affordable Energy for Everyone”
“Sustainable business opportunities”

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