Informational Writing PowerPoint

Report
 What is prewriting?
 Prewriting: the act of organizing your research
and planning out your writing piece.
 Why is it important to organize your
information in a writing piece?
 Easier to write
 Easier to read
 Comparison/contrast: points out similarities
and differences in two topics
Egypt’s
burial
practices
Burial
practices
of my
religion
 Cause/effect: shows relationship between
events/ideas and their results or
consequences
Brakes
don’t work
Bike
doesn’t
stop
Accident
occurs
 Classification: information is sorted into
categories
 For instance, how a supermarket is arranged:
meat, dairy, freezer, produce
 In writing, an example would be dividing
information into pros and cons.
Republican
• Mitt
Romney
Democrat
• Barak
Obama
Green
• Jill Stein
 Which strategy would be best for an essay on
the four types of clouds?
 Which strategy would be best for an article on
the differences between planets and stars?
 Which strategy would be best for a paper on the
process of photosynthesis?
 Which organization strategy would be best for a
biography examining obstacles and successes?
 Perseverance can be broken into two categories:
1. Obstacles
2. Successes
Obstacle
• Details about
obstacle
Obstacle
/Success
• Details about
obstacle or
success
Success
• Details about
success
Complete the pre-writing organizer by categorizing
your information into obstacles and successes.
 A thesis statement is the main idea of the
overall writing piece.
 The thesis should be stated in the
introduction and restated in the conclusion.
 Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her
rough childhood, her own physical limitations,
and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller.
 (The name of your individual) persevered by
(obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success
from topic #2), (success from topic #3).
 Topic sentences are the main idea of each
paragraph in a writing piece.
 For your informational writing piece, the topic
sentence of each paragraph should relate
directly back to the thesis:
 Anne first displayed her persevering drive by not
letting her tragic childhood bring her down.
 Anne had to be sent to the Perkins School
because she also had to overcome childhood
blindness.
 As a result of her belief in learning and education ,
Anne Sullivan herself became a teacher. However ,
even this exciting opportunity resulted in
difficulties.
 The purpose of the thesis statement and
topic sentence is to make it clear to your
reader what you are talking about.
 In your rough draft, highlight (in yellow) your
thesis statement and topic sentences.
 Introducing a Topic
 Interesting details about the topic to grab the
reader’s attention.
 Thesis statement/main idea about the topic
 Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her
rough childhood, blindness, and teaching Helen.
 Introducing a Topic Activity
 At your table, review the four introduction
examples. Write the name of the individual that
each paragraph is about and rank them from worst
(4) to best (1). Explain the strengths and
weaknesses of each, especially on whether they
have the two important parts of an introduction.
Babe Ruth
Anne Frank
Gloria Estefan
Babe Ruth was and still is considered
the best baseball player ever to set foot on a
diamond; he set records that were not reached
for almost thirty years, including his 714 career
homeruns. This amazing baseball career
blocked out all the tough times Babe Ruth
went through. He overcame a bad childhood,
being very poor, and went on to become the
best baseball player that ever lived.
Anne Frank was a Jewish teenager who
endured the struggled of the Holocaust during
World War II. Her father introduced her diary to
the world in 1947, and it is now a memorable
war document, a symbol of hope, an
interesting read, and proof of Anne Frank’s
fight to survive.
Gloria Estefan was born on September
1, 1958 in Havana, Cuba. She hasn’t had the
best life, but is now a very popular singer.
Gloria Estefan persevered by overcoming her
rough childhood, stage fright, and a broken
back.
 At the top of your prewriting organizer, list
some interesting details that would get the
reader interested in your topic.
 Using the information you gathered and
organized, write a thesis statement that
covers each part of your informational writing
piece.
 Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her
rough childhood, her own physical limitations,
and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller.
 (The name of your individual) persevered by
(obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success
from topic #2), (success from topic #3).
 Ways to develop the topic of your
informational writing piece:




Relevant facts/concrete details
Definitions
Quotations
Examples
 Developing the Topic Activity:
 Compare and contrast the following model
paragraphs. At the bottom, explain how the
details, definitions, quotations, and examples
develop the topic of Anne Sullivan’s
perseverance.
Anne first displayed her
persevering drive by not letting her
tragic childhood bring her down. Her
mother and brother died. She lived at
an institution. She finally went to
school.
Anne first displayed her
persevering drive by not letting her
tragic childhood bring her down. Her
father was an abusive alcoholic and
her mother died when she was very
young. At the age of ten, Anne and
her brother were sent to live at an
institution, a place that served poor
and needy people. Jimmie, Anne's
brother, died three months later,
leaving Anne alone. At the institution,
Anne was forced to live with sexually
abused women or people suffering
from mental illness. Despite this
unending series of depressing events,
Anne refused to accept such a sad
life. When a state official visited the
almshouse, she pleaded with him to
let her go to school. He granted her
request and sent her to the Perkins
School for the Blind.
Anne Sullivan became a
teacher. Anne was hired as the tutor of
Helen Keller, a young girl who was deaf and
blind. Helen's inability to interact with the
world around her led to wild behavior and a
fiery temper. Anne was able to teach Helen
to communicate by signing a manual
alphabet into her hand.
As a result of her belief in
learning and education, Anne Sullivan
herself became a teacher. However, even
this exciting opportunity resulted in
difficulties. Anne was hired as the tutor of
Helen Keller, a young girl locked in a dark
prison of deafness and blindness. Helen's
inability to interact with the world around her
led to wild behavior and a fiery temper.
Anne's initial attempts at teaching Helen
failed because of her unruly nature. For
example, the first day that they met, Helen
slapped Anne and then locked her in a
room. In an effort to first teach the girl
discipline, Anne and Helen moved to live in
a nearby cottage where they could be
alone. Even though Helen repeatedly
resisted her teacher's attempts, she finally
learned to be calm and obedient. Soon
after, Anne was also able to teach Helen to
communicate by signing a manual alphabet
into her hand. Helen was extremely excited
to learn and eventually became the first
deaf-blind person to get an undergraduate
degree from college. Mark Twain, the
renowned creator of Tom Sawyer and Huck
Finn, called Anne Sullivan "the miracle
worker".
 In the details section of your prewriting
organizer, add as many relevant facts,
concrete details, definitions, quotations, and
examples as you can to develop the topic.
 Trade prewriting organizers with the person
at your table. Check each other’s pieces to
see if more details are needed to develop
the topic.
 Write down the sentence that is more
interesting and then explain why:
 “He walked over to receive his award.”
 “The 6’4” basketball player strutted across the
court to receive the MVP trophy.”
 Precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary helps inform about a topic.
 Precise language: words that make a
description as clear and sharp as possible
 “Wild behavior and fiery temper” instead of “bad
attitude”
 “Sling” instead of “throw”
 Domain-specific vocabulary: words that
relate to a certain field
 If the biography is about a doctor, then there would
be medical terms.
 If the biography is about a baseball player, there
would be baseball terms.
 If the biography is about a scientist, there would be
scientific terms.
 In your rough draft, highlight in green at least
three places where you have used precise
language or domain-specific vocabulary. If
you cannot find any, revise your paper to
include some now.
 Hint: Right click on words and choose an
interesting synonym.
 Only choose words that you know
 Reread the sentence to make sure the new
word makes sense
 What are transitions?
 Transitions: words and phrases such as for
example, mainly, and in addition that
connect ideas in writing.
 What is the purpose of transitions?
 Transitions connect ideas and make text
easier to understand.
Transitional Words and Phrases
Compare/
Contrast
also, however, on the other hand, although, in
the same way, similarly, another, like, too, but,
likewise, unlike, moreover, yet
Cause/
Effect
as a result, consequently, so, because, since,
therefore
Time
about, finally, often, after, first, second, soon,
then, at last, immediately, thereafter, before,
later, until, during, meanwhile, when,
eventually, next, while
Place
above, beneath, into, across, beside, near,
among, between, next, around, by, over,
before, down, behind, under, below
Support
for example, for instance, in fact
When she was elected principal chief of the
Cherokee Nation in 1987, Wilma Mankiller took on a huge
job. She was used to challenges, though. For example, she
had developed many needed projects for Cherokees in
Oklahoma in 1976. First, she taught people how to build their
own homes. Next, she installed new water supply lines.
Finally, she started new rural health clinics. Then, she had to
overcome serious injuries she suffered in an auto accident in
late 1979. While other were impressed with the new chief’s
dedication, no one who really knew her well found her
leadership ability surprising.
Once elected chief, Mankiller continued her work to
improve Cherokee communities. She focused on housing
and education needs, and she encouraged her people to be
proud of their language and culture. After serving two terms
as chief, Wilma Mankiller continued to work for the Cherokee
Nation by speaking across the country.
 In your rough draft, locate at least five places
where you have used transitional words and
phrases. If you cannot find five, revise your
paper to add additional ones.
 For each example, use the Comment feature
to label and explain the purpose of each
transitional word or phrase.
 What is the difference between the style of
clothes you wear for school and the style of
clothes you wear on a night out with your
friends or to the beach?
 Style refers to the writing choices you
make, such as which words to use and
how to arrange sentences.
 Academic papers (papers written for
schools), should be written in a formal style,
meaning they should be professional.
 Translate the following text slang into
language appropriate for formal style:
 Btw, Nellie was a kewl chick.
 OMG! Jackie shows skillz.
 Sosa’s got swag.
 Review your paper to make sure the style is
appropriate for an academic paper.
 Format your paper according to MLA style.
 The concluding section (or conclusion) is the
final part of your paper and should do the
following:
 Support the previous information
 Restate the thesis/main idea
 Ideas for writing the conclusion:
 Refer back to the introduction
 Give a final idea or example
 Ask a question or give a comment that will keep
readers thinking
 Give a final meaning, importance, or purpose for
the paper: Why does it matter?
Gloria is considered a superstar in the
world of music and has won seven Grammys.
She has also received the Ellis Island
Congressional Medal of Honor, a great
achievement for someone who has become a
U.S. citizen. Through her music, she shattered
cultural boundaries.
Babe Ruth’s baseball stats hide the fact
that his young life was so hard. Babe wanted it
this way; he never wanted people to feel sorry
for him. He wanted to be judged by his talents
and successes. By overcoming childhood
poverty and rebellion, he went on to be one of
the best baseball players of all time.
Along with many other Jews of her day,
Anne Frank experienced horrors that many
people today could never imagine. By reading
her diary, we can see, feel, and hear only
some of the hardships and struggles she faced
– moments she continually sought to
overcome. Even though she faced both the
normal challenges of being a teenager and the
unfair hatred of the Nazis, her diary reveals a
spirit of perseverance.
 Headings
 Graphics
 Multimedia
 Useful in aiding comprehension

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