Understanding By Design Grant Wiggins and Jay McTigue Interpreted by Dr. Rich Hawkins and Dr. Deb DeLuca Presented By:Laura Mastrogiovanni Backward Design Chapter One Teachers are designers…or are they? Compare and contrast the MM’s of teachers as designers vs. other design professions (architecture, engineering, graphic artists)? The effectiveness of an architects design is client-centered. Effectiveness of a design corresponds to whether they have accomplished the explicit goals of their clients Teachers are designers…or are they? The effectiveness of a teacher’s design is too often teacher-centered. Effectiveness of a design (curriculum, assessment, learning structures) often corresponds to whether they have: Covered the required content Accomplished their goals Kept pace with their colleagues Scored a normal distribution on summative assessments If we were to accept the aforementioned statement as current reality, how might the aforementioned statement be modified? Teachers are designers…or are they? Compare and contrast the MM’s of teachers as designers vs. other design professions (architecture, engineering, graphic artists)? The effectiveness of an architects design is client-centered. Effectiveness of a design corresponds to whether they have accomplished the explicit goals of their clients. Standards Shape an Architect’s Work What standards inform an architects work? Building Codes Zoning Codes Customer Budget Neighborhood Aesthetics Specific Use Standards Shape a Teacher’s Work What standards inform a teacher’s work? Building Culture and Norms Tenured v. Non-tenured Personal Autonomy Collective Bargaining Agreement Personal ABBA’s Degree of Supervision Pre-post service Education Standards Shape a Teacher’s Work What standards inform a teacher’s work? NCLB IDEA State Standards District Standards Department Standards Content Standards (NCTM, MENC, etc.) Factors That Influence Design Facilities Resources Diverse Student Interests Social/Emotional Capacity Class Size Demographics NOTE: These are influences, NOT EXCUSES!!!!!!! NOOOOO EXCUSES! “ …all the methods and materials we use are shaped by a clear conception of the vision of desired results (p.14)”. “we must state with clarity what the student should understand and be able to do as a result of any plan and irrespective of any constraints we face (p.14)”. “Find a way or make a way” - RJH “If you don’t know exactly where you are going, then any road will get you there.” If we continually focus on what we like to teach and the activities and resources we’ll use, without clarifying the desired results of our teaching, then how will we know whether our designs are arbitrary or appropriate? Can you cite a time when you or your colleagues fell into this trap? How do we… Know our designs are arbitrary or appropriate? Separate interesting from essential learning’s? Know if it is just cute or does it count? Balance good instruction with the need to pass “the test.” Balance Inputs and Outputs? Balance formative and Summative assessments? Inform instruction? Shift from content-driven or activities design to results-driven design? (e.g. see p. 15) Shift from fact-based knowledge to metacognition? Crykees, we’ve got some work to do! How do we eliminate hope as our primary strategy? Design with the “end-in-mind.” Remember Vision, Mission, Guiding Ideas? Answer the “why” and “so what” questions students want answered. Focused curriculum planning Be explicit Transparent Priorities (no secrets!) Remember Madelyn Hunter’s Anticipatory Sets? Prepare Curriculum like Floyd Football prepares for every game Everyone has a SV, an innovative, customized game plan and the TMT’s to make it happen!) Let’s Review… Reactivate your episodic memory Framework for Strategic Leadership Skills and Capabilities (ppk Relationships Deep Learning Cycle Guiding Ideas Evidence PDSA Domain of Strategic Architecture Innovations in Infrastructures T, M, & Tools Practices ABBA’s Awareness and Sensitivities U.B.D. - Look Familiar? Skills and Capabilities (ppk) Relationships Culture (internal) Practices End in Mind Societal Forces ABBA’s Assessment (External) Awareness and Sensitivities PDSA Curriculum Design Innovations in Infrastructures T, M, & Tools Three Stages of Backward Design Stage 1: Identify desired results Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction 1. 2. 3 Is the Velcro working yet? 3 Stage 1: Identify desired results Consider our vision and goals Examine established content standards (national, state, district) Performance Expectations Curriculum Teaching Assessments Clarify content priorities p.18 Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence How will we know if students have achieved the desired results? What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and mastery? Evidence influences content and activities, not the inverse Think like an assessor (archeologist) Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction Several key questions: What enabling knowledge (facts, concepts, principles) and skills( processes, procedures, strategies) will students need in order to perform effectively and achieve the desired results? What activities will equip students with the needed knowledge and skills? What will need to be taught and coached, and how should it be best taught, in light of performance goals? What materials and resources are best suited to accomplish these goals? Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction Specifics of instructional planning can only be accomplished after we identify the desired results and the assessments! Why do we call this backwards? Because you are not free thinkers, probably wimps, who are like lambs led to slaughter and will do things that the culture rewards rather, thus feathering your own bed, rather than use your common sense to benefit your students! BTW, I say this without malice or blame. The Logic of Backward Design Applies regardless of learning goals E.g.: Starting from state content standards, curriculum planners need to determine the appropriate assessment evidence stated or implied in the standard. Likewise, a staff developer should determine what evidence will indicate that adults have learned the intended knowledge or skill before planning the various workshop activities. The Rubber Meets the Road with ASSESSMENT Three different teachers may all be working toward the same content standards, but if the assessments vary considerably, how are we to know which students have achieved what? How common is this scenario in your school? What are the unintended consequences of this phenomena? p.19 Learning w/o UBD Shared Vision? Desired Goals? Is this your department or grade level? Learning w/o UBD Shared Vision? Desired Goals? This is the result of “coverage” and “activitybased” learning. “hands on” without “minds on” Oh Sh*&)(^&%$#@&)! Coverage teaching is “Teaching by Mentioning It” Coverage teaching typically relies on a test or textbook Coverage Assessment is waiting until June and then hoping, praying and saying multiple novenas Learning With Vision (U.B.D.) Shared Vision Desired Goals The Ideal. Remember Ch. 9 in PLC? Results-based learning with an engaged mind Backwards Design Templates (software) Reinforces the habits of mind necessary to minimize or avoid committing the “twin sins.” Starts with the “Big Picture” and drills down to greater and greater Big Picture Multiple Templates One Page Two Pages Six Pages Details UBD 1 pg.Template “Gestalt” Provides an overview of UBD Enables a quick alignment check Assessments (Stage 2) Learning Activities (Stage 3) Can be used as a review for existing lessons Provides and initial design framework One page Template –Stage One Asks designers what they want their students to understand and to frame these understandings as questions Identify Understandings and Essential Questions to establish a greater context into which a unit is nested One page Template –Stage Two Asks designers to consider a variety of assessment methods for gathering evidence of the desired learnings Designers need to think in terms of collective evidence, not a single a performance task One page Template –Stage Three Asks designers to list major learning activities and performance tasks When filled in, “WHERETO” should be evident to all What, Who, Where, When Hook and Hold Equip, Experience, and Explore Rethink and Revise Evaluate Tailored to learners abilities, needs, and interests (differentiate) Organized UBD Design Standards (p. 28) Design templates are to curriculum designers as are scoring rubrics to students Specify the qualities of effective units (see Figure 1.4) according to UBD Standards contribute to design in three ways Reference Point Self-Assessment and peer reviews of draft designs Quality control of completed designs UBD Scope of Intelligent Tools Templates (graphic organizers) Design Standards Design Tools Innovations in Infrastructure UBD Tools (TMT’s) Designed around an array of scaffolds – Prompts Organizers Idea Sheets Examples See the Workbook These tools help create “alignment,” consistency and promote common understanding Theories, Methods and Tools Read UBD in Action with Bob James How might this differ from the planning process you use for instruction? What are your significant learning's, aha’s, or wonderings? What are the implications for using UBD for: You, as a teacher You, as a leader Your school Your district Based on your current reality, in what area or discipline would UBD yield the highest leverage? Why? p.29 The UBD Design Matrix (Figure 1.5) Read left to right, one row at a time, to see how the three stages of design might look in practice What does this yield? Greater coherence (alignment) among desired results, key performances (assessments), and teaching and learning experiences, resulting in better student performance – the purpose of design!