Internal Assessment IB SEHS Title Page O Provides key information about YOU and YOUR IA O Should include: O Name O Candidate number (provided later) O Date O Research question/problem What is the effect of one’s peer group in selecting dietary preferences? John Jones 1234 5/25/14 DESIGN (D) O You are given an open-ended question to investigate O Investigate factors affecting the range of movement of joints. O You must generate your own focused problem or specific research question. O CHOOSE AN AREA YOU ARE INTERESTED IN!! O Topic: Fitness O Design an investigation on variations in the fitness levels of individuals O Topic: Practice O Does practice make perfect? O Topic: Respiratory system O Design an investigation to characterize the cardiovascular response to various stimuli i. Aspect 1: defining the problem and selecting variables O Research Question O Make it clear and focused and it MUST state the dependable (measured) and the independent (changed) variables. O Include measurements e.g. beats per minute (bpm) O List all the relevant controlled variables (can be expected to affect the outcome) along with confounding variables (variables that need to be monitored) Research Question: After a standardized exercise test, is the rate at which heart rate (bpm) returns to the pre-exercise level different for trained and untrained individuals? Independent variable: Trained athletes and untrained athletes. Dependent variable: Heart rate measured in beats per minute (+/- 6 bpm) Controlled variables: Temperature, age of participants, position/posture of participants after exercise, measurement of heart rate, types of exercise. Confounding variables: Difference in hydration status, energy levels, arousal levels, weather conditions. Stating a hypothesis is no longer necessary BUT is a good practice. Order of IA so far: Title page General Aim (re-stating the teacher prompt) Research Question Hypothesis Background Information (includes literature sources and provide valuable background info. along with your inspiration for this line of inquiry) Independent variable Dependent variable Controlled variable ii. Aspect 2: controlling variables O You must give clear descriptions of how you will control variables to ensure that only the independent variable changes. O You could set this out as a table: Variable How it is controlled? Why? Feedback No feedback from the test conductor or observers. This ensures consistency and no external factors will affect the results. Sample: Age, sex, number 20 females selected from a pool of 50 experienced players Results can be generalized and trends can be found for this sample if they are randomly selected. Type of serve Kick serve. Results can be more reliable if all the participants are using the same type of serve. • Participants in your investigation must be described with justification for your sampling method (random, opportunity, self-selected) • Write a clear NUMBERED method that will allow someone who does not know what you are doing to follow your experiment-imagine it is a recipe. • Document how ethical guidelines were followed and explain hoe the briefing and debriefing were carried out. A copy of the consent form should be included in the appendices. iii. Aspect 3: developing a method for collecting data O You need 3-5 repeats/trials for each variable (e.g. temperature) O A minimum of 5 subjects is also needed to undertake further statistical analysis such as standard deviation Order of IA so far: Title page General Aim Research Question Hypothesis Background Information Independent variable Dependent variable Controlled variable List of ALL apparatus/equipment to be used Method of controlling the controlled variables Diagram/picture of setup (labeled) Method DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING (DCP) i. Aspect 1: recording raw data The numeric raw data you collected (not averaged) must enable you to answer the research question and enable you to carry out basic processing along with statistical analysis. O Data should be recorded with a standardized predetermined degree of precision e.g. to within one decimal place such as 5.5 cm, 8.5 cm etc. O Appropriate raw quantitative data could consist of the heart rate readings, time elapsed after finishing exercise, heart rate of the participant before exercise and room temperature O You are encouraged to gather qualitative data and analyze it O Such data would be characteristics of the participant (age, gender, athletic history) or resting position/posture O Data may be gathered as a class in order to have sufficient data to carry out significant processing and the determination of uncertainties HOWEVER you must clearly present your own data Precision of Data O All headings/columns in data tables are required to have an accompanying uncertainty figure (+/– figure) O The error is usually +/- one half of the smallest unit that can be measured O You may want to include human systematic error (when using a stop watch)rather than mechanical error…..seconds vs centimeters Tips for Data Collection and Using Tables O Table titles should be descriptive and include both the independent (changed) and the dependent variable (measured) and may start with the words: “Table showing the effect of….” O Try to fit all your data into one single table O Ensure the table headers are descriptive for example “Temperature of room 1” is much better than “Temperature” O Every header requires appropriate units along with the error margin O All decimal places in a column must be consistent O In your data table, repeats should be called “Trial 1” and “Trial 2” ii. Aspect 2: processing raw data O Data processing involves combining and manipulating raw data and transforming umbers into a form suitable for presentation be it graphical, written or verbal O Common ways to process data: O O O O O O O O Adding, subtracting Squaring, dividing Mean Percentage of the whole Percentage increase Rate Standard deviation Statistical tests iii. Aspect 3: presenting processed data O GRAPH IT! O You are expected to decide upon a suitable presentation format for your processed data O Ways to present data O O O O O O O O O Scatter plot Bar graphs Pie charts Histogram Kite diagrams Spreadsheet Tables Charts Flow diagram Preparing your Graph O Title your graph in the same way as your O O O O data tables Graphs need to have appropriate scales, labeled axes with units and accurately plotted data points with a suitable best-fit line or curve Dependent variable, y-axis Independent variable, x-axis Reference any software used CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION O i. Aspect 1: concluding O Common mistake; students describe their results with out explaining them O Must include data from your results to back up your findings and refer to the appropriate statistical test to discuss the significance of the data O Good format: O Discuss: trends in your data O Refer to your graphs by name and state what trends or patterns can be seen if any. Do not imagine patterns if there are none! O Compare: you are supposed to know something about the topic, so now is the time to bring in external information, usually from textbooks or peer-reviewed journals O Explain your data by comparing the literature value. Do not say that your results prove an explanation; say that they support an explanation. REFERENCE literature O If your results are unexpected or show no pattern O It is fine to state your data is inconclusive but attempt to suggest why this may be O Negative results that show no correlation when you had hoped to find one are very acceptable O Don’t bend your data to fit what you think should happen O Ii. Aspect 2: evaluating procedure(s) and Aspect 3: improving the investigation O This can be presented as a table with 3 columns Weaknesses The use of thigh circumference as a measurement of leg muscle is subjective as a high value may be due to fat instead of muscle. Some participants aalso have longer bones, and thus a measurement of the circumference 10cm above the knee may not be where the circumference is the larges.t Significance of weakness This is quite a significant source of error as the investigation and leg power relies on leg muscle and not fat, and thus delimits our findings. Suggest Improvement Instead of using thigh circumference in comparison to leg power, weight could be used. Measuring the thigh circumference halfway up the participant's thigh could eliminate the problem of varying bone lengths. O Describe at least three major shortcomings O Try not include minor mistakes O Difficulties arising during the project O Make notes of problems as you encounter them O Before you write your evaluation, list all the problems you came across and consider ways in which you could eliminate them O Prioritize them O Essentially you are looking to ensure you have carried out a fair test, that is, the only variable you have changed is the independent variable. O Example: it is not methodological error to “misread non-digital scales” but it is an error if you fail to use the same scales for all your measurements as other scales may be calibrated differently When evaluating procedures you must comment on: O Design O Performance of procedure O Method O Equipment O Precision and accuracy of measurement O Quality and reliability of data O Management of time Appendices O Copies of additional information O Materials use O Standardized test instructions O Debriefing notes O Informed consent letters O Each appendix should be numbered and have an appropriate title O Appendix 1: Nomo gram to measure leg power All Components of IA O Method of controlling the O O O O O O O O O Title page General Aim Research Question Hypothesis Background Information Independent variable Dependent variable Controlled variable List of ALL apparatus/equipment to be used O O O O O O O O controlled variables Diagram/picture of setup (labeled) Method Recording of raw data (table) Processing raw data (statistical analysis) Presentation of processed data (table or graph) Conclusion Evaluation Appendices Group 4 Project (10 hrs) O This a collaborative activity where students from different group 4 subjects or schools work together to investigate a scientific or technological topic Project Should Address…. O Aim 7 requires you to develop and apply information and communication technology skills in the study of science O Aim 8 relates to raising awareness of the moral, ethical, social, economic, and environmental implications of using science and technology O Aim 10 demands that you develop an understanding of the relationships between scientific disciplines and the overarching nature of the scientific method O The emphasis is on interdisciplinary cooperation and the process involved in investigation, rather than the products of such investigation Personal Skills O Worth a total of 6 points out of 48 for your IA O Graded on your involvement, your ability to work as a team and self-reflection Planning O 1st planning meeting O Elect a chair and secretary for your team O Chair will run the meeting and make sure everyone gets a chance to express their views O Secretary should ensure that they have email addresses for every student on the team Documentation O Types of materials collected: O Text O Pictures O Graphs O Video O Store the information on a group blog O Make sure all team members and the instructor have access to the blog O All members should regularly contribute to the blog O Will be used to help determine a final assessment of your personal skills O Also during 1st meeting O Discuss as a group a way to develop a project which can be completed in the time allowed. O Topics are often broad O Follow the scientific method…… O During 2nd meeting: O Refine the project question and develop the investigation O If these tasks have already been completed, begin the action phase Types of Projects O Designing and carrying out a laboratory investigation or fieldwork O Carrying out a comparative study (experimental or otherwise) in collaboration with another school O Designing and using a model or simulation O Contributing to a long term project by the school O Collating, manipulating and analyzing data form other sources, such as scientific journals, environmental organizations, science and technology industries and government reports Action Phase O Test the hypothesis experimentally, collecting and analyzing data and preparing your presentation O All members of the team should be participating O Keep the experiment simple O Keep contributing to the blog Evaluation/Presentation O Presentation can be: O Keynote speakers O PowerPoint O Prezi O Video O Share your findings, along with success and failures O Keep in mind the collaborative effort of your team!!